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Flashcards in Renal Deck (44):
1

hyponatremia

nausea
stupor
coma
seizures

2

hypernatremia

irritability
stupor
coma

3

hypokalemia

U waves on ECG
flattened T waves
arrhtymias
muscle spasm

4

hyperkalemia

wide QRS and peaked T waves
arrhythmia
muscle weakness

5

hypomagnesia

tetany
torsades
hypokalemia**alcoholics

6

hypermagnesia

lethargy
decreased deep tendon reflexes
hypotension
hypocalcemia

7

hypophosphatemia

bone loss
osteomalacia
rickets

8

hyperphosphatemia

renal stones
metastatic calcifications
hypocalcemia

9

Objectives of treating hyperkalemia

stabilize the cardiac membrane calcium gluconate
drive potassium intracellularly with insulin and Glu
decrease total body potassium

10

Side effects of aminoglycosides

acute renal failure

11

drugs causing acute interstitial nephritis

diuretics
penicillin related
proton pump inhibitors
sulfonamides
rifampin
phenytoin
allopurinol

12

nephrotoxic causes of ATN

aminoglycosides
radiocontrast
lead cisplatin
myo/hemoglobinuria

13

uses of doxycycline

community acquired pneumonia
zoonotic infections
chlamydia
acne

14

uses for azithrimycin

community acquired infections
sinus infections
chlamydia
strep pharyngitis

15

Postoperative oliguria

urinary retention after anesthesia
bladder distention from fluid overload or epidural anesthesia can predispose
must cath patient o relieve bladder pressure

16

causes of hypomagensia

alcoholism
diuretics

17

nephrotic syndrome
acute gross hematuria and abdominal pain

renal vein thrombosis
loss of antithrombin III
most commonly membranous glomerulonephritis

18

side effects of rifampin

red urine and body fluid discoloration
AIN
hepatotoxicity

19

Timeline of IgA nephropathy vs PSGN

IgA 5 days
PSGN 10-21 days

20

contraindications to succinyl choline use

Hyperkalemia
8 hr crush/burn injuries
guillian barre syndrome
tumor lysis syndrome

21

alternatives to succinylcholine

vecuronium
rocuronium

22

causes of renal transplant dysfunction

ATN
uretral obstruction
acute rejection
cyclosporine toxicity
vascular obstruction

23

abdominal pain radiating to groin
vomiting
benign abdominal exam

nephrolithiasis

24

effect of vomiting on electrolytes

hypokalemia
hypochloremia
increase bicarbonate

25

flank pain
decreased urine output
occasional large voids

mechanical obstruction likely from stone

26

Indications for cystoscopy

gross hematuria with no glomerular disease
microscopic hematuria with risk for malignancy
recurrent UTI
obstructive symptoms
irritative symptoms without infection
abnormal imaging

27

risk factors for bladder cancer

SMOKING
occupational exposures
cyclophosphamide
radiation
chronic cystitis

28

Treatment of hypercalcemia

fluids and calcitonin
bisphosphenates

29

pathophysiology of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

IgG C3 nephritic factor against C3 convertase leads to persistent complement activation and thus kidney damage

30

screening for diabetic nephropathy

urine microalbumin to creatinine ratio

31

indications for calcium glucaonate

potassium greater than 7
ekg changes
rapid rise in K from cell breakdown

32

MUDPILES

Methanol
Uremia
DKA
Propylene glycol
Infection
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol/Ethanol(lactic acidosis)
Salicylate

33

Therapy for Goodpastures

emergent plasmapheresis

34

electrolyte abnormality in Cushing's

hypokalemia

35

pH abnormalities in salicylate toxicity

anion gap metabolic acidosis
respiratory alkalosis

36

High osmolar gap

methanol
ethanol
ethylene glycol

37

anion gap metabolic acidosis
envelope crystals

ethylene glycol

38

Causes of crystal induced AKI

IV acyclovir
sulfonamides
methotrexate
ethylene glycol
protease inhibitors

39

treatment of uremic coagulopathy

desmopressin
cryoprecipitate
conjugated estrogens

40

Gross Painless hematuria

bladder cancer

41

management of non-ketotic hyperglycemic coma

up to 8L normal saline
switch to .45 saline when glucose

42

Causes of primary adrenal insuffciency

infection(TB, HIV, fungal)
Autoimmune
Hemorrhagic
Metastatic cancer

43

Lab findings in primary adrenal insufficeincy

hyperkalemia
hypoglycemia
eosinophilia

44

increased oxalate absorption

in disease such as crohn's there is fat malabsorption
The fat binds to calcium
Calcium usually binds oxalate in the gut and prevents its absorption