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Flashcards in Renal Deck (12):
1

Constricting the glomerular efferent arteriole will decrease:

Renal blood flow

2

Which are the normal constituents of urine?

Na, K, urea, Ca, and H2O are normally found in urine

3

Neurogenic bladder is associated with all of the following except:

UTI less likely

4

Which of the following are manifestations of end-stage renal disease?

Increase creatine

5

Acute renal failure may be associated with:

septic shock
nephrotoxin
obstruction of urinary tract
inadequate RBF

6

Which of the following could delay the onset of end stage renal failure?

Low protein diet

7

Decreasing GFR is associated with increased:

Serum K+

8

Your patient has developed renal failure. Give three possible causes for developing this and the mechanism for each.

Cause 1: Burn injury
Mechanism:
Burn injuryexcessive fluid lossdec blood volumehypovolemiadec plasma blood to kidneyinadequate blood to kidneyec functionrenal failure

Cause 2: Cardiogenic Shock
Mechanism:
Cardiogenic shockpump failuredec blood pumped out of heartdec blood to kidneydec perfusionrenal failure

Cause 3: Nephrotoxic drugs
Mechanism:
Nephrotoxic drugsdamage to nephrons in kidneysloughing off and necrosis of tubular epithelial cellsacute tubular necrosisrenal failure

9

Three manifestations of renal failure

Manifestation 1: bleeding/anemia
Mechanism:
Renal failuredec excretion of nitrogenous wasteinc waste in blooduremiaTUEimpaired plateletsdec clottingbleeding

Manifestation 2: edema
Mechanism:
Renal failuredec Na excretedNa and H2O retentioninc vasc volumeinc Pcedemathird spacing

Manifestation 3: dec LOC
Mechanism:
Renal failuredec excretion of nitrogenous wasteinc waste in blooduremia and TUEcrosses BBBdec LOC

10

Your patient is in renal failure and has now become anemic. Give the mechanism for this happening in the renal failure patient.

Renal failuredec EPO produced by kidneysdec activation of bone marrowdec synthesis of RBCdec RBCanemia

11

Your patient has come to the emergency with a UTI. Give three possible causes.

Cause 1: vesicoureteral reflux
Mechanism:
Damaged vesicoureteral valvesallow bidirectional flowbacteria moves up into urinary tractdec flushing outbacteria remainsUTI

Cause 2: Chronic analgesic use
Mechanism:
Chronic analgesic useinterrupts bladder contractionsdec flushing outstasis of urinebacteria remainsUTI

Cause 3: Neurogenic bladder
Mechanism:
Neurogenic bladderabsence of detrusor muscledec emptyingoverdistended bladderstasis of urineno dilution or flushing outbacteria remainsUTI

12

Three treatments for UTI

Treatment 1: Antibiotics
Mechanism:
Antibioticskills bacteriano more infectiontreatmentno UTI

Treatment 2: Fluids
Mechanism:
Push fluidsdilute bacteriainc flushing outriding of bacteriatreatmentno UTI

Treatment 3: Cranberry juice
Mechanism:
Cranberry juicecontains waterdilutes bacteria and prevents organisms from adhering to bladder wallinc flushing out of bacteriariding of bacteriatreatmentno UTI