Renal Anatomy Flashcards Preview

R - Y2 Anatomy (Megan) > Renal Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Anatomy Deck (64)
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1

What vertebral levels do the kidneys sit at?

T12 - L3

2

What vertebral level is the hilum of the kidney at?

L1 - the transpyloric plane

3

where do the kidneys sit?

On the posterior abdominal wall, in the pare vertebral gutters.

4

Which regions does the renal system travel through?

The abdominal, pelvic and perineal.

5

How long is the female urethra?

4cm

6

How long is the male urethra?

20cm (4-5x length of the female urethra).

7

where does the female bladder sit?

Below the uterus, anterior to the vagina.

8

Where does the male bladder sit?

Above the prostate gland, anterior to the rectum.

9

which kidney lies more inferior to the other?

The right kidney sits 1-2cm lower than the left, due to the presence of the liver.

10

What are the layers surrounding the kidney? from superficial to deep?

pararenal fat
renal fascia
perirenal fat
fibrous renal capsule

11

Where is the pararenal fat located?

on the posterior side of the kidneys

12

what does the renal fascia enclose?

the kidneys AND suprarenal glands.

13

what are the retroperitoneal organs?

SAD PUCKER
suprarenal glands
abdominal aorta
duodenum (not proximal 1-2cm)

Pancreas (part from tail)
ureters
colon - ascending and descending
kidney
oesophagus
rectum

14

what are the 5 areas of contact on the right kidney?

adrenal gland, hepatic area, duodenum, hepatic flexure (right colic flexure), small intestine.

15

What are the 6 areas of contact on the left kidney?

adrenal gland, stomach, spleen, pancreas, jejunum, splenic flexure 9left colic flexure).

16

which 3 muscles (of the back and stomach) do the kidney come into contact with?

diaphragm, posts major, quadrates lumborum.

17

what is the parasympathetic nerve supply of the kidneys?

It comes from the vagus nerve

18

What is the sympathetic nerve supply of the kidneys?

it comes from T12-L1 - comes from coeliac ganglia - along the renal arteries.

19

what is lymphatic drainage of the kidneys?

into the para-aortic lymph nodes at the start of the renal arteries - L1

20

which embryological structure does the kidney develop from?

the mesonephros - intermediate plate mesoderm

21

which embryological structure does the ureter develop from?

intermediate plate mesoderm.

22

what is the name for being born with only 1 kidney?

renal agenesis

23

what's the name for having only 1 working kidney?

kidney dysplasia

24

what is the name for having two ureters instead of one?

duplicated ureter

25

in horseshoe kidney, where do the kidneys fuse together?

Usually at the lower poles.

26

what level is the coeliac trunk? what does it supply?

T12
the foregut - from the mouth to the proximal duodenum

27

what level is the superior mesenteric artery? what does it supply?

L1
midgut - distal duodenum to the proximal 2/3rds of transverse colon.

28

What level is the renal arteries?

L1-L2

29

What level is the inferior mesenteric artery? what does it supply?

L3
hindgut - distal 1/3rd of transverse colon - rectum.

30

which level is the spleen?

T9-T11.

31

what is the renal corpuscle?

The filtering part of the kidney (the glomerulus and the bowman capsule).

32

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

the nephron - made from the renal corpuscle + proximal convoluted tubule + loop of henle + distal convoluted tubule + collecting duct.

33

What is the outer part of the kidney called? what structures are in there?

The cortex - the glomerulus, proximal and distal tubules and the beginning and end of the loop of henle.

34

What are the triangles in the middle of the kidney called?What do they have inside them?

the medullary pyramids - the loop of henle along with the collecting ducts.

35

what is the drainage flow of the urine?

filtrate enters the collecting ducts - these drain down to the apex of the pyramid (into minor calyces) - 2/3/4 of these minor calyces drain into a major calyx - 2 or 3 of these major calyces drains into the renal pelvis - which eventually becomes the ureter.

36

what type of epithelium is in the tubes of the kidneys?

Transitional epithelium - all the way from the minor calyx to the urethra after the bladder. theres also connective tissue and smooth muscle.

37

Histology: what are the 3 cells in the glomerulus?

podocytes
capillary cells
mesangial cells

38

what structures are found in the cortex?

glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules

39

histology: how can you tell between distal and proximal tubules?

proximal tubules are full, distal tubules have an empty lumen

40

what structures are found in the medulla?

the loop of henle, collecting ducts, part of the cortex - renal columns.

41

which side is the IVC and abdominal aorta on?

IVC is on the right side, abdominal aorta is on the left side.

42

What is posterior and anterior - renal arteries or veins?

renal arteries run posterior to the renal veins.

43

is the right or left renal vein longer?

right is shorter, left is longer.

44

is the right or left renal artery longer?

right is longer, left is shorter.

45

what vein drains into the left renal vein?

left gonadal vein

46

What is the muscle called in the bladder?

the detrusor muscle

47

which muscle of the back does the ureters run anteriorly too?

the psoas major muscle

48

which bifurcation does the ureters run over?

runs over the common iliac artery - just as it splits into the external and internal iliac artery.

49

in males - what crosses anteriorly to the ureters?

the vas deferens

50

in females - what crosses anteriorly to the ureters?

the uterine arteries

51

where in the bladder does the ureters open into?

the vesicoureteric opening, posterior and lateral of the bladder wall.

52

where are the three ureteric constriction sites?

the ureteropelvic junction (or ureteric orifice), crossing the common iliac artery and entering the bladder (the vesicoureteric junction).

53

which part of the bladder does the urethra exit?

the urethral crest

54

which type of tissue makes up the bladder wall?

transitional epithelium

55

what is transitional epithelium?

this is stratified epithelium which is round in shape when its not distended.

56

which bony joint is directly anterior to the bladder?

the pubic symphyses.

57

what is transitional epithelium also called in the ureters and bladder?

urothelium

58

what is the benefit of having transitional epithelium

it can stretch lots

59

on an x-ray, where do you see the ureters?

running in line with the transverse processes

60

what does the transitional epithelium look like when its NOT distended?

cuboid/columnar cells

61

what does the transitional epithelium look like when it IS distended?

squamous cells (stretched)

62

what is the ureter derived from embryologically?

ureteric buds - from the mesonephric duct.

63

what is special about the trigone muscle?

the epithelium is a lot more sensitive (detrusor muscle) - that's the one which is ultimately stretched when you get the urge to pee

64

where does the bladder sit?

Just posterior to the pubic symphyses