Flashcards in Renal anatomy, physiology and urine formation Deck (74):
What are the four main components of the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
What three hormones do the kidneys produce?
at what vertebral level is the left kidney located?
At what vertebral level is the right kidney located?
What is the covering on the kidney?
List the 7 parts of the internal kidney
Cortex (w/ renal columns)
minor and major calyces
What are the 5 layers of the adrenal gland? exterior to interior
Capsule, zona glomerulosa, zona fasiciculata, zona reticularis, adrenal medula
What is the main functional unit of the kidney?
Where are nephrons located?
Renal cortex and medulla
What are the 4 components of the nephron?
glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
Which part of the nephron is considered the "medullary portion"?
Loop of Henle
In what order of structures do fluids leave the nephron collecting ducts to head toward the bladder?
minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter
What are the two types of nephrons and what is the difference?
Cortical - mostly in the renal cortex, have short loop of Henle
juxtamedullary - nephrons extend deep into the medulla, have long loop of Henle
substances pulled from blood into kidney
substances pulled from kidney back into the body
substances pulled straight from the body to the kidney (prox. and distal conv. tubules, loop of Henle)
urine leaves kidney via collecting duct, calyces and renal pelvis
What percentage of blood leaving the left ventricle of the heart enters the kidnes via the renal arteries?
How much blood goes through the kidneys per minute?
~1200 ml/min (both)
~600 ml/min (each)
Where do the kidney's afferent arterioles travel to?
to the capillary tuft (glomerulus)
Where did the blood come from that is in the kidney's efferent arterioles?
Blood that was not filtered by the glomerulus (capillary tuft)
Where do the kidney's efferent arterioles travel to?
from glomerulus they become the peritubular capillaries in the cortex then the vasa recta in the medulla
what is the (outer) parietal layer of the bowman's capsule made of?
fenestrated squamous epithelium (aka parietal epithelial cells)
What is the (inner) visceral layer of the bowman's capsule made of?
podocytes (aka visceral epithelial cells)
3 layers of the glomerular capillary wall
What is GFR stand for?
glomerular filtration rate
What is GFR?
What is the name of the GFR test?
What does the clearance test test for?
how well the kidneys are filtering creatinine
What are "threshold substances"? 4 examples
substances that are almost completely reabsorbed by renal tubules (when concentration is w/in normal limits)
- amino acids
- sodium chloride
Which part of the loop of Henle is water permeable?
descending loop of henle
Where does reabsorption of solutes occur in the loop of henle?
ascending loop of henle
how much of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the time it reaches the distal tubule?
where is urea reabsorbed?
the collecting duct
What two things does tubular secretion account for?
1) The removal of waste substances that weren't filtered by the glomerulus (toxins and meds like penicillin)
2) secretion and removal of hydrogen and other ions to regulate acid-base and electrolyte balance
What it the pH range of the body?
7.35 to 7.45
What organs regulate the body's pH?
Lungs and kidneys
Are bicarbonates secreted or reabsorbed?
Both! Can be secreted but are often reabsorbed (up to 100%) depending on the pH of the body
What are the 3 main functions of the distal and collecting tubules?
1) adjustment of pH, osmolality and electrolytes
2) secretion of K+, ammonia and H+
3) reabsorption of Na++ and bicarbonate
What microscopic structure in the kidney regulates the function of each nephron?
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)
What are the 3 components of the JGA?
1) macula densa of distal convoluted tubule
2) juxtaglomerular cells (produce and secrete renin)
3) mesangial cells (secretion of erythropoietin)
What precursor does renin react with? What does renin convert?
converts to angiotensin 1
What enzyme converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2? Where?
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
What does angiotensin 2 cause?
what two hormones does angiotensin 2 trigger the release of in order to cause vasoconstriction?
1) aldosterone - adrenals, increases Na absorption
2) antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin - posterior pituitary
from where is aldosterone secreted?
What are two functions of aldosterone?
1) + blo NA reabsorption leading to + blo volume (water follows salt)
2) enhances K/Na ions in distal tubules
What layers make up the adrenal cortex?
Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciulata, zona reticularis
aka for ADH
Where is ADH/vasopressin synthesized?
Where is ADH/vasopressin stored?
posterior pituitary gland
aka posterior pituitary
aka anterior pituitary
what are two functions of ADH/vasopressin?
Makes walls of collecting ducts permeable, regulates H2O absorption in collecting ducts
What is a result of insufficient ADH?
what are signs of DI?
polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria
What are the two causes of DI?
1) decreased production of ADH/vasopressin
2) abnormal kidney response to ADH/vasopressin
What does SIADH stand for?
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion
What is SIADH?
excessive secretion of ADH when not needed
What is the most common cause of SIADH? what percentage?
small cell lung carcinoma 80%
urine excretion rate
urine excretion when dehydrated
urine excretion when excessively hydrated
average daily urine volume adult
When is the most urine produced?
word to describe decrease urinary volume during shock or acute glomerulonephritis (<400ml/24 hr period)
word to describe complete suppression of urine formation (<75 ml/24 hr period for 2-3 days)
in 24 hours, how many grams of dissolved material is secreted in urine? How much is urea?
1/2 is urea
6 things that are abnormal in urine (BBGKPP)
3 C's of urine sediment
inflammation of bladder
inflammation of the kidney
nephritis with bacterial infection