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Flashcards in Renal anatomy, physiology and urine formation Deck (74):
1

What are the four main components of the urinary system?

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

2

What three hormones do the kidneys produce?

erythropoietin
calcitriol
prostaglandins

3

at what vertebral level is the left kidney located?

T11-L2

4

At what vertebral level is the right kidney located?

T12-L3

5

What is the covering on the kidney?

Capsule

6

List the 7 parts of the internal kidney

Cortex (w/ renal columns)
medulla (pyramids)
minor and major calyces
renal pelvis

7

What are the 5 layers of the adrenal gland? exterior to interior

Capsule, zona glomerulosa, zona fasiciculata, zona reticularis, adrenal medula

8

What is the main functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

9

Where are nephrons located?

Renal cortex and medulla

10

What are the 4 components of the nephron?

glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule

11

Which part of the nephron is considered the "medullary portion"?

Loop of Henle

12

In what order of structures do fluids leave the nephron collecting ducts to head toward the bladder?

minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter

13

What are the two types of nephrons and what is the difference?

Cortical - mostly in the renal cortex, have short loop of Henle

juxtamedullary - nephrons extend deep into the medulla, have long loop of Henle

14

Define filtration

substances pulled from blood into kidney

15

define reabsorption

substances pulled from kidney back into the body

16

define secretion

substances pulled straight from the body to the kidney (prox. and distal conv. tubules, loop of Henle)

17

define excretion

urine leaves kidney via collecting duct, calyces and renal pelvis

18

What percentage of blood leaving the left ventricle of the heart enters the kidnes via the renal arteries?

20-25%

19

How much blood goes through the kidneys per minute?

~1200 ml/min (both)
~600 ml/min (each)

20

Where do the kidney's afferent arterioles travel to?

to the capillary tuft (glomerulus)

21

Where did the blood come from that is in the kidney's efferent arterioles?

Blood that was not filtered by the glomerulus (capillary tuft)

22

Where do the kidney's efferent arterioles travel to?

from glomerulus they become the peritubular capillaries in the cortex then the vasa recta in the medulla

23

what is the (outer) parietal layer of the bowman's capsule made of?

fenestrated squamous epithelium (aka parietal epithelial cells)

24

What is the (inner) visceral layer of the bowman's capsule made of?

podocytes (aka visceral epithelial cells)

25

3 layers of the glomerular capillary wall

fenestrated endothelium
basal lamina
podocites

26

What is GFR stand for?

glomerular filtration rate

27

What is GFR?

90-120 ml/min

28

What is the name of the GFR test?

clearance test

29

What does the clearance test test for?

how well the kidneys are filtering creatinine

30

What are "threshold substances"? 4 examples

substances that are almost completely reabsorbed by renal tubules (when concentration is w/in normal limits)
- amino acids
- creatine
- potassium
- sodium chloride

31

Which part of the loop of Henle is water permeable?

descending loop of henle

32

Where does reabsorption of solutes occur in the loop of henle?

ascending loop of henle

33

how much of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed by the time it reaches the distal tubule?

~90%

34

where is urea reabsorbed?

the collecting duct

35

What two things does tubular secretion account for?

1) The removal of waste substances that weren't filtered by the glomerulus (toxins and meds like penicillin)
2) secretion and removal of hydrogen and other ions to regulate acid-base and electrolyte balance

36

What it the pH range of the body?

7.35 to 7.45

37

What organs regulate the body's pH?

Lungs and kidneys

38

Are bicarbonates secreted or reabsorbed?

Both! Can be secreted but are often reabsorbed (up to 100%) depending on the pH of the body

39

What are the 3 main functions of the distal and collecting tubules?

1) adjustment of pH, osmolality and electrolytes
2) secretion of K+, ammonia and H+
3) reabsorption of Na++ and bicarbonate

40

What microscopic structure in the kidney regulates the function of each nephron?

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)

41

What are the 3 components of the JGA?

1) macula densa of distal convoluted tubule
2) juxtaglomerular cells (produce and secrete renin)
3) mesangial cells (secretion of erythropoietin)

42

What precursor does renin react with? What does renin convert?

precursor: angiotensinogen
converts to angiotensin 1

43

What enzyme converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2? Where?

angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
lungs

44

What does angiotensin 2 cause?

systemic vasoconstriction

45

what two hormones does angiotensin 2 trigger the release of in order to cause vasoconstriction?

1) aldosterone - adrenals, increases Na absorption
2) antidiuretic hormone aka vasopressin - posterior pituitary

46

from where is aldosterone secreted?

adrenal cortex

47

What are two functions of aldosterone?

1) + blo NA reabsorption leading to + blo volume (water follows salt)
2) enhances K/Na ions in distal tubules

48

What layers make up the adrenal cortex?

Zona glomerulosa, zona fasciulata, zona reticularis

49

aka for ADH

vasopressin

50

Where is ADH/vasopressin synthesized?

hypothalamus

51

Where is ADH/vasopressin stored?

posterior pituitary gland

52

aka posterior pituitary

neurohopophysis

53

aka anterior pituitary

hypophysis

54

what are two functions of ADH/vasopressin?

Makes walls of collecting ducts permeable, regulates H2O absorption in collecting ducts

55

What is a result of insufficient ADH?

diabetes insipidus

56

what are signs of DI?

polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria

57

What are the two causes of DI?

1) decreased production of ADH/vasopressin
2) abnormal kidney response to ADH/vasopressin

58

What does SIADH stand for?

Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH secretion

59

What is SIADH?

excessive secretion of ADH when not needed

60

What is the most common cause of SIADH? what percentage?

small cell lung carcinoma 80%

61

urine excretion rate

~1 ml/min

62

urine excretion when dehydrated

~0.3ml/min

63

urine excretion when excessively hydrated

~15ml/min

64

average daily urine volume adult

1200-1500 ml

65

When is the most urine produced?

daytime

66

word to describe decrease urinary volume during shock or acute glomerulonephritis (<400ml/24 hr period)

oliguria

67

word to describe complete suppression of urine formation (<75 ml/24 hr period for 2-3 days)

anuria

68

in 24 hours, how many grams of dissolved material is secreted in urine? How much is urea?

~60g
1/2 is urea

69

6 things that are abnormal in urine (BBGKPP)

bilirubin
blood
glucose
ketone bodies
porphyrins
protein

70

3 C's of urine sediment

Cells
Crystals
Casts

71

define cystitis

inflammation of bladder

72

define nephritis

inflammation of the kidney

73

nephritis with bacterial infection

pyelonephritis

74

nephritis without infection

glomerulonephritis