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Flashcards in Renal Failure Deck (26)
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1

What are clinical abnormalities seen with chronic renal insufficiency?

Dehydration, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, uremia, anorexia, Ca/P imbalance, anemia, hypertension

2

When is diagnosis of chronic renal insufficiency usually made?

Once isosthenuria and azotemia are present

3

How does polyuria affect the kidneys?

Hypoperfusion and pre-renal azotemia

4

How can you treat metabolic acidosis assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

Tx not usually needed but can tx w/potassium citrate

5

What causes uremia assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

Inability to excrete metabolic byproducts leads to buildup in the bloodstream

6

What might cause anorexia assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

Uremic ulcers and gastritis

7

What H2-blocker is frequently used to treat gastric ulcers assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

Famotidine

8

How does increased phosphate further the progression of renal dysfunction?

Excessive PTH secretion, renal osteodystrophy, extraskeletal mineralization

9

How can Calcitriol therapy help improve therapeutic outcome of chronic renal insufficiency?

Reduces PTH levels

10

What is a major factor of anemia assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

Inadequate renal erythropoietin production

11

How do you manage hypertension assoc. w/chronic renal insufficiency?

ACE-inhibitors

12

How does dietary therapy influence the prognosis of a chronic renal insufficiency case?

Prolongs live 2-3x

13

What is an appropriate diet for a chronic renal insufficiency patient?

Low protein, low phosphorus, high moisture

14

What may be indicated to treat a chronic renal insufficiency patient with significant anemia that is compromising QoL or necessitating transfusion?

Recombinant human erythropoietin administration

15

Does anuria occur with acute or chronic renal disease?

Acute

16

Does anemia occur with acute or chronic renal disease?

Chronic

17

What diet decreases formation of nitrogenous wastes?

Low phosphorus

18

What drug can help palliate hypertension?

Ca channel blocker (amplodipine)

19

What are sequelae of renal failure?

Cannot make calcitriol, gastric ulcers, 2* hyperPTH

20

What does the loss of ability to make calcitriol result in clinically?

Chronic weight loss

21

What measurement necessitates calcitriol supplementeation?

Phosphorous <6mg/dL

22

How does renal disease cause gastric ulcers?

Decreases mucosal blood flow and gastric hypersecretion

23

How does hyperparathyroidism result from renal failure?

PTH upregulated to compensate for incr. P (d/t decr. GFR)

24

How is USG affected by chronic renal failure?

Isosthenuria (1.008-1.015)

25

What is the most common form of chronic renal failure?

Glomerulonephritis

26

What causes glomerulonephritis?

Deposition of immune complexes in glomerular basement membrane