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Flashcards in Renal Medicine Deck (13):
1

What are the causes of nephrotic syndrome?

Primary
- Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis
- Minimal change disease
- Membranous GN
- Mesangiocapillary GN

Secondary
- SLE
- Amyloid
- DM
- Infection

2

What is the management of nephrotic syndrome?

Diuretics
Fluid restrict
ACE-I
Aspirin
Warfarinase if albumin

3

How does nephrotic syndrome present?

Triad of...
- Oedema
- Frothy urine (proteinuria)
- Hypoalbuminaemia

Usually lethargy aswell

4

What are the complications of acute pyelonephritis?

Pyonephrosis
Peri-nephritic syndrome
Papillary necrosis

5

What is renal papillary necrosis?

Necrosis of the distal 2/3 of the renal pyramids

Ischaemic coagulative necrosis

6

What is pyonephrosis?

Accumulation of white cells, bacteria and debris in the collecting system

Typical associated with fevers, chills and flank pain

7

What are the causes of acute papillary necrosis?

POST CARDS

Pyonephritis
Obstruction
Sickle cell disease
Tuberculosis
Chronic liver disease
Analgesia/alcoholic abuse
Renal transplant rejection
Diabetes mellitus
Systemic vasculitis

8

What is the most likely cause of a renal mass on ultrasound?

Renal cell carcinoma

9

Why might a left sided renal mass lead to left sided varicocele?

Venous drainage from the testes is via the gonadal veins, which on the left drains to the renal vein (Directly to IVC on right)

Mass can compress renal vein

10

What is the common genetic abnormality associated with renal cell carcinoma?

Von Hippel-Lindau

An autosomal dominant disease characterised by phaeochromocytoma, pancreatic and renal cysts, cerebellar haemangioblastoma and the development of renal cell carcinoma

11

What is Von Hippel-Lindau disease?

An autosomal dominant disease characterised by phaeochromocytoma, pancreatic and renal cysts, cerebellar haemangioblastoma and the development of renal cell carcinoma

12

What is the classic presentation of renal cell carcinoma?

Triad of loin pain, a mass and haematuria

13

How is minimum urine output calculated?

0.5mL/kg/h