Renal pathology I Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Renal > Renal pathology I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal pathology I Deck (49):
1

what are the congenital renal pathologies?

- agenesis
- hypoplasia
- ectopic
- horseshoe

2

is renal agenesis usually unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

3

is renal hypoplasia usually unilateral or bilateral?

unilateral

4

horseshoe kidney carries an increased risk of ____________

infection

5

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is due to mutation in what genes?

PKD1 or PKD2

6

1/3 of patients with AD polycystic kidney disease also present with cysts in what other organ?

liver

7

berry aneurysms are associated with what renal disease?

AD polycystic kidney disease (10% of patients)

8

PKD1 or PKD2 mutations cause what renal pathology?

AD polycystic kidney disease

9

how much of the kidney must be displaced with cysts before a precipitous drop in renal function?

2/3

10

further workup in ADPKD includes looking at what organs?

liver and brain (berry aneurysms)

11

what is the gross appearance of the kidney in ADPKD?

- no recognizable normal kidney tissue
- cysts containing hemorrhage causing a darkening appearance

12

does autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) present in childhood or adulthood?

childhood

13

ARPKD is due to a mutation in what gene?

PKHD 1

14

in ARPKD cysts develop from what renal structure?

collecting ducts

15

congenital hepatic fibrosis is associated with what renal pathology?

ARPKD

16

what is the gross appearance of the kidney at birth in ARPKD?

huge, white, SMOOTH surfaced kidneys

17

does ARPKD take on a more cystic or fibrotic morphology?

fibrotic

18

what are the other terms for simple cysts?

- "retention"
- "acquired"

19

renal biopsies are routinely stained for what factors?

- IgG
- IgA
- IgM
- C3
- C1q
- kappa light chains
- lambda light chains

20

anti-GBM disease has what type of immunofluorescence staining pattern?

linear capillary loop

21

- membranous nephropathy
- lupus nephritis

these have what type of immunofluorescence staining pattern?

granular capillary loop

22

- IgA nephropathy
- lupus nephritis

these have what type of immunofluorescence staining pattern?

mesangial

23

lupus nephritis can show what type of immunofluorescence staining patterns?

- granular capillary loop
- mesangial

24

what is the other name for the glomerular epithelial cell?

podocyte

25

in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease, antibodies are formed against what structures?

- native GBM
- "planted" antigens
- glomerular cells (mesangial cells, podocytes, etc)

26

what arm of immunity is associated with glomerular disease?

cell mediated

27

what cell types are associated with glomerular disease?

- neutrophils
- monocytes
- macrophages
- T cells
- NK cells
- platelets
- mesangial

28

what soluble mediators are associated with glomerular disease?

- cytokines
- chemokines
- coagulation factors

29

what are the three main clinical renal syndromes?

- nephritic
- nephrotic
- acute renal failure

30

what is the general cause of nephritic syndrome? what is the result?

- GLOMERULAR injury: breaks in glomerular capillary loops
- hematuria

31

what is the general cause of nephrotic syndrome? what is the result?

- GLOMERULAR injury: glomerular capillary filtration defects
- severe proteinuria

32

what is the general cause of acute renal failure? what is the result?

- tubular injury in most cases
- oliguria + rapid rise in serum creatinine

33

what is the first approach to diagnosis in a patient with renal disease?

classify the patient's symptoms using clinical and laboratory parameters into one of the clinical renal syndromes

34

what are the symptoms of nephritic syndrome?

- HTN
- oliguria
- proteinuria
- azotemia
- hematuria
- RBC casts

35

what type of casts are seen in nephritic syndrome?

RBC casts

36

what are the symptoms of nephrotic syndromes?

- proteinuria (over 3.5 g / 24 h)
- pitting edema
- hypoalbuminemia
- hypercoagulable state
- hypercholesterolemia
- hypogammaglobinemia
- fatty casts

37

what type of casts are seen in nephrotic syndrome?

fatty casts

38

is azotemia seen in nephritic or nephrotic syndrome?

nephritic

39

what is the cause of hematuria in nephritic syndrome?

breaks in the glomerular capillaries that results in leakage of RBCs into urinary space

40

what is the cause of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome?

glomerular capillary filtration defects (podocyte effacement) that results in leakage of protein into urinary space

41

what is the gross appearance of the kidneys in chronic renal failure?

- small kidneys
- thinning cortex
- increase in pelvic fat

42

what is the microscopic appearance of the kidneys in chronic renal failure?

- glomerular sclerosis
- interestitial fibrosis
- tubular atrophy

43

what are the three primary causes of nephrotic syndrome?

- minimal change disease
- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- membranous nephropathy

44

what is the main secondary cause of nephrotic syndrome?

diabetic nephropathy

45

- minimal change disease
- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- membranous nephropathy

these can cause what type of renal syndrome?

nephrotic syndrome

46

what is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children (2-6 y)?

minimal change nephropathy (minimal change disease, lipoid nephrosis)

47

what is the histological appearance of minimal change nephropathy?

- diffuse epithelial foot process effacement
- lipid in tubular cells

48

minimal change nephropathy responds to what treatment?

steroids

49

"diffuse epithelial foot process effacement" describes the histological appearance of what disease?

minimal change nephropathy