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Flashcards in Renal Stuffs Deck (20):

What are the 4 functions of the kidneys?

Excretion, Filtration, Re absorption, Secretion


What two regions of cells control the autoregulation of GFR?

Macula Densa, and Granular Cells


What do granular cell secrete?



What do macula densa cells do?

Sense distal tubule flow. And send paracrine signals that change the constriction of the afferent arteriole.


What is the kidneys response to lowered blood pressure?

Conserve H20 to maintain bloodvolume


What is the kidneys response to high blood pressure?

Excrete salts and water, to help lower blood volume.


Describe how vasopressin is important in conserving water loss.

It adds or removes pores in the collecting duct.


Describe how vassopressin is released, and effects its target cells.

1: Avp is made in the cell body of a hypothalmus neuron.
2: it is transported to the posterior pituitary.
3: Released into the blood stream when water needs to be absorbed into the blood
4: Binds to membrane receptors collecting duct cells.
5: Causes a cAMP second messenger system
6: Causes aquaporins in vesicles to be deposited on the membrane of the cell.


Where is aldosterone released from?

Adrenal cortex


What is the target cell of aldosterone?

Principal cells.


describe the effects of aldosterone

1: enters cell through simple diffusion
2: binds with cytoplasmic receptors
3: Initiates transcript in nucleus
4:make new protein channels and pumps
5: Results in increased Na reabsorption and K secretion.


Describe the Renin Angiotensin Pathway

1: Juxtaglomerular granular cells release renin
2: Renin converts angiotensinogen into ANG 1
3: ACE in blood converts ANG 1 to ANG2
4: ANG 2 reaches adrenal gland and causes synthesis of aldosterone.


What is the Renin Angiotensin pathway related too?

Low blood pressure. Helps retain Na ions which causes thirst, which causes higher blood volume to raise blood pressure.


Describe the structure of the kidney from outside in.

Capsule, Cortex, Medulla, Renal Pelvis


Describe the structure of the nephron from front to back.

Afferent and Efferent Arterioles. Glomerulus. Boman's Capsule. Proximal Tube, Loop of Henle, Distal Tubule, Collecting Duct


Which pressure at the glomerulus is pushing filtration?

Hydrostatic Pressure (PH)


Which two pressures are pushing against filtration?

Osmotic Pressure, Fluid Pressure


Macula Densa and Granular Cells are part of what structure?

Juxtaglomerular apparatus


Where are the macula densa cells located?

Ascending loop of henle


If less substanance appears in the urine than what was filtered what net force happened?

Net Re absorption