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Human Body Lecture > Renal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal system Deck (22):
1

hyponatremia

level of sodium in the blood is abnormally low
-can occur if too much water is consumed too quickly

2

osmoregulation

the balancing of water with solute concentrations across a cell membrane
-electrolytes: sodium, potassium, chloride
-non-electrolytes: glucose

3

water intake comes from two sources. what are they

-ingested in the form of liquid or water in the food
-metabolic body water

4

water loss can happen in various ways what are they

-urination and defecation
-sweating
-insensible water loss via evaporation

5

when water loss is greater than water intake, the bodys fluids start to become ...

body's fluids start to become hypertonic and this causes the feeling of thirst

6

renal system is comprised of

2 kidneys
2 ureters
bladder
urethra

7

the renal system does what

-cleanses the blood
-balance water and solutes
-form urine
-remove toxins, waste, extra water and electrolytes via micturition (urination)
-

8

kidneys

main osmoregulatory organs of the body

9

what do the kidneys accomplish

-maintain composition and volume of blood plasma
-regulate water, ion, pH levels
-retain nutrients
-excrete waste, toxins, excess electrolytes
-produce erythropoietin and renin
-regulate the activation of vitamin D
-glycogenesis

10

the suprarenal capsule housed the

adrenal glands

11

when stimulated the adrenal glands secrete which hormones

-corticosterioid hormones: cortisol and corticosterone
-aldosterone
-androgens
-epinephrine (adrenaline)
-norepinephrine

12

corticosteroid hormones are released under the direction of the

hypothalamus and pituitary gland

13

where does ultrafiltration occur?

at the glomerular capillary/nephron interface that ultrafiltration occurs

14

the glomerulatra capillary bed does what?

facilitates higher blood pressure and as a result specializes in pushing things out of the blood and into the initial part of the nephron

15

the peritubular capillary bed does what?

has lower pressure so it is uniquely designed to encourage the reabsorption of compounds from the nephron back into the blood

16

uretheral meatus

prevents the back flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters

17

what does the stretching of the trigone doe

sends an action potential to the brain telling you you have to pee

18

internal urethral sphincter

smooth muscle
involuntary

19

external urethral sphincter

skeletal muscle
voluntary

20

medullary nephron

excels at water conservation

21

cortical nephron (cortex)

good at cleansing the blood

22

the renal medulla specifically the pyramids contain

collecting ducts and loops of henle