Repro Embriology/ A&P High Yield Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Repro Embriology/ A&P High Yield Deck (147):
1

A mutation is sonic headge hog can cause...

holoprosencephaly

2

Where is sonic hedgehog produced?

Made at base of limbs in zones of polarizing activity

3

Which gene does doral- ventral aixs?

Wnt-7 gene

4

What gene is present at the apical ectodermal ridge?

FGF gene

5

What gene is responsible for anterior- posterior axis development?

Sonic hedge hog

6

What gene allows for the lengthening of limbs?

FGF gene

7

What gene is involved in segmental organization of embryo in a craniocaudal direction?

Hox gene

8

What results from a Hox gene mutation?

Limbs in the the wrongs place

9

Where does fertilization usually occur/

Ampulla of the uterine tube

10

How many cells in a blastula? What day?

Day 2--> 2 cells
Day3--> 4 cells

11

What day does the morula appear?

Day 4

12

What day does the blastocyst appear?

Day 5

13

What day does the blastocyst implant?

Day 6

14

What hormone begins to be secreted when blastocyst implants?

hCG

15

What are teh 2 portions of the blastocyst?

Embryoblast (embryo) and trophoblast (placenta)

16

What is present at 2 weeks?

bilaminar disc (epiblast and hypoblast)

17

What process takes place at 3 weeks?

Gastrulation (forms the trilaminar disc)

18

When is the embryonic period?

Week 3- 8

19

When is an embryo most suceptible to teratogens?

Wk 3- 8

20

When does organogenesis occur?

wk 3-8

21

When does the fetal heart begin to beat?

Wk 4

22

When do limb buds begin to form?

Week 4

23

What is present at week 3?

Trilaminar disc

24

What is gastrulation?

Process that forms the trilaminar disc--> establishes ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm germ layers

25

"absent organ due to absent primordial tissue"

Agenesis

26

"absent organ despite presence of primordial tissue"

aplasia

27

"incomplete organ development; primordial tissue present"

Hypoplasa

28

"extrinsic disruption, occurs after embryonic period"

Deformation

29

"secondary breakdown of previosly normal tissue or structure"

disruption

30

"intrinsic disruptino--> occurs during embryonic period"

Malformation

31

"abnormalities result from a single primary embryologic evet"

seqence

32

When can monochorionic, diamniotic twins arise?

Day 4-8

Most common (75%)

33

When can dichorionic and diamniotic twins arise?

Day 0-4 days

between 2 cell stage and morula

34

When can monochorionic and monoamniotic twinse arise?

8- 12 days

between morula and blastocyst

35

When do monochorionic and monoamniotic conjoined twins arise?

>13 days

between blastocyst and formed embryonic disc

36

What are the two fetal layers of the placenta?

Cytotrophoblast (inner layer of chorionic villi

Syncytiotrophoblast (outer layer of chorionic villi)

37

What is the maternal component of the placenta?

Decidua basalis

38

What portion of the placent secretes hCG?

Synchytiotrophoblasts

39

What allows the placenta to escape maternal immune system?

Lacks MHC- I expression

40

What are the vessels in the umbilical cord?

2 umbilical arteries (deoxygenated blood)

1 umbilical vein (oxygenated blood)

41

Where do the umbilical arteries arise from?

internal iliac arteries

42

Where does the umbilical vein drain into?

IVC (via liver or ductus venosus)

43

What is a single umbilical artery associated with?

congenital and chromosomal anomalies

44

What is the urachus and what is it formed by?

a duct between the fetal bladder and yolk sac

arises from the allentois (which develops from the yolk sac)

45

"urine discharge from the umbilicus"

Patent urachus (total failure of urachus to obliterate)

46

"fluid filled cavity lined with uroepithelium between umbilicus and bladder"

Urachal cyst--> partial failure of the urachus to obliterate

47

"outpouching of the bladder"

vesicourachal diverticulum --> slight failure of the urachus to obliterate

48

What connects the yolk sac to the midgut lumen?

Vitelline duct (omphalo- mesenteric duct)

49

"meconium discharge from umbilicus"

Vitelline fistula--> vitelline duct fails to close

50

"true diverticulum in the ileum leading to melena, hematochezia"

Meckel diverticulum--> partial closure of vitelline duct

51

What fails to fuse in a cleft lip?

maxillary and medial nasal process (formation of the primary palate)

52

what fails to fuse in a cleft lip?

2 lateral palatine processes

OR

Lateral palatine processes with the primary palate (medial nasal and maxillary)

53

Another name for the paramesonephric duct?

Mullerian duct

FEMALE

54

Another name for the mesonephric duct?

Wolffian duct

MALE

55

What inhibits the development of mullerian ducts in males?

Sertoli cells are induced (by SYR gene) to secrete Mullerian inhibitory factor (MIF)

56

What stimulates the development of the mesonephric/ Wollfian duct in males?

Androgens secreted by the leydig cells

57

"amenorrhea in females with fully developed secondary sexual characteristics (functional ovaries)"

Mullerian agenesis

58

What 4 structures are derived from the wollfian ducts?

SEED

Seminal vesicles
Epididymis
Ejaculatory duct
Ductus deferens

59

If the sertoli cells fail to make MIF...what is the presentation?

Develop both male and female internal genitala

Develop male external genitalia

60

If there is a defciency of DHT...what is the presentation?

male internal genitalia

Ambiguous eternal genitalia until puberty

61

Most common uterina (mullerian duct) anomaly?

Septate uterus (Y shaped uterus)

62

"opening of the penile urethra on ventral surface of the penis"

hypospadias

63

"opening of the penile urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis"

epispadias

64

What causes hypospadias?

failure of urethral fold to fuse

65

What causes epispadias?

Faulty positioning of genital tubercle

66

What other condition is epispadias associated with?

Extrophy of the bladder

67

What other 2 conditions is hypospadias associated with?

Inguinal hernia


Cryptorchidism

68

Which side of testes/ ovaries (right or left is drained into the renal vein before it reaches the IVE?

Left

69

Lymphatic drainage of the ovaries/ testes?

Para-aortic lymph nodes

70

Lymphatic drainage of the distal vagina/ vulve/ scrotum?

Superficial inguinal nodes

71

Lymphatic drainage of the proximal vagina/ uterus?

Obturator, External iliac and hypogastric nodes

72

What ligament connects ovaries to lateral pelvic wall?

Infundibulopelvic ligament

73

What vessls are within the infundubulopelvic ligament?

Ovarian vessels

74

What structure is at risk during oophorectomy?

Ureter due to proximity to the ovarian vessels (it may be ligated accidentally)

75

What ligament connects the cervix to the side wall of the pelvis?

Cardinal ligament

76

What type of vessels does the cardinal ligament hold?

Uterine liament

77

What connects the uterine fundus to labia majora?

Round ligament of the uterus

78

What connects the uterus, fallopian tube and ovaries to pelvic side wall?

Broad ligament

79

What structures are contained within the broad ligament?

Ovaries, fallopian tubes, round ligaments

80

What are the 3 portions of the broad ligament?

Mesosalpinx
Mesometrium
Mesovarum

81

What connects the medial pole of ovary to the lateral uterus?

Ovarian ligament

82

What two ligaments are derivatives of the gubernaculum?

Ovarian liigament and the round ligament

83

What is the hstology of the uterine glands?

Long tubular during the follicular phase

Coiled in the luteal phase

84

Which portion of the female genital tract has ciliated simple columnar epithelium?

Fallopian tubes

85

Which portions of the female genital tract has simple cuboidal epithelium

Ovaries

86

What is the pathway of sperm in ejaculation?

SEVEN UP

Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Nothing
Urethra
Penis

87

Which portion of the urethra is prone to injury from pelvic fracture?

Posterior membranous urethra

88

Which portion of the urethra is prone to injury from blunt force trauma?

Posteriour bulbar urethra

89

What portion of the urethra is prone to injury from perineal straddle injury?

Anterior penile urethra

90

Which is innervated by the PNS...erection or emission?

Erection

91

Which nerve innervates erection?

Pelvic

92

Which nerve innervates emission?

Hypogastric nerve

93

Which nerve innervates ejaculation?

Pudendal nerve

94

What can ait in erection?

NO--> increased cGMP


NE--> increased Ca/ smooth muscle contraction

95

Which cells line the serminferious stubules?

spermatogonia

96

What cells produce primary spermatocyes?

Spermatogonia

97

Which cells respond to FSH?

Sertoli cells

98

Which cells secrete androgen binding protein?

Sertoli cells

99

What cells produce MIF?

Sertoli cells

100

How does temperature affect sperm development?

increased temp--> decreased sperm production and decreased inhibit

101

What is the female version of sertoli cells?

Granulosa cells

102

What is the female version of leydig cells?

Theca interna cells

103

What is the female version of leydig cells?

Theca interna cells

104

What are the 3 sources of esttrogen?

Ovary (estradiol)
Adipose (estrone)
Placenta (estriol)

105

What hormone is needed for endometrial proliferation?

Estrogen

106

What process does FSH promote?

The action of aromatase (leading to androgens being converted to estrogen)

107

What cells have aromatase?

Granulosa cells

108

What cells have desmolase?

Theca interna cells

109

What is the function of desmolase?

Cholesterol--> androgens

110

What is the source of progesterone?

Corpus luteum
Placenta
Adrenal cortex
Testes

111

What hormone is needed to stimulate endometrial glandular secretions and spiral artery development?

Progesterone

112

Which hormone inhibits the gonadotropins?

progesterone

113

Which hormone prevents endometrial hyperplasia?

Progesterone

114

Tanner Stage I?

Childhood (prepubertal)

115

Tanner stage II?

Pubic hair appears

Breast buds form

116

Tanner stage III?

Pubic hair becomes hark and curly

Penis size/ length increases

Breasts enlarge

117

Tanner stage IV?

Penis width increase

Darker scrotal skin

Development of glans

118

Tanner stage V?

Adult

Areolae are no longer raised

119

What is the length of the luteal phase?

14 days!!

120

What lead to regression of the corpus luteum?

decline of progesterone levels

121

At what day does the LH surge occur on?

Day 14!

122

At what step does meiosis I pause at?

Prophase I

123

When does meiosis I end?

just prior to ovulation

124

At what step does meiosis II pause at?

Metaphase II

125

When is meosis II completed?

Just prior to fertalization

126

What phase of meiosis reduces diploid to haploid?

Meiosis I

127

What phase of meiosis reduces diploid to haploid?

Meiosis I

128

What raises the body temperature at time of ovulation?

Progesterone!

129

What is required to MAINTAIN milk production?

Suckling--> increaed nerve stimulation--> increased oxytocin and prolactin

130

What hormone induces and maintains lactation and decrease reproductive function?

Prolactin

131

Wht assists in milk let down?

Oxytocin

132

What immune cells does breast milk contain?

Ig, macrophages, lympocytes

133

What vitamin supplementation do breast fed infants require?

Vit D!

134

What hormone maintains the corpus luteum (and thus progesterone) for the first 8- 10 weeks after pregnancy?

hCG

135

What other hormones s hCG structurally similar to?

identical alpha subunit--> LH, FSH, TSH

136

What is the primary estrogen seen in post menopausal women?

Estrone (from adipose tissue)

137

What are the symptoms of menopause?

Hot flashes
Atrophy of Vagina
Osteoporosis
Coronary artery disease
Sleep disturbances

138

What can cause menopause

Premature ovarian failure

139

What is the order of cells in spermatogenesis?

Spermatogonium
Primary spermatocyte
Secondary Spermatocte
Spermatid

140

What is Spermiogenesis?

Spermatid--> mature spermatozoon

141

What is Spermiogenesis?

Spermatid--> mature spermatozoon

142

What is a more potent androgen...testosterone or DHT?

DHT

143

What hormone is responsible for external genitalia differentiation?

DHT

144

What hormone is responsibel for differentiation of epidiymus, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles?

Testosterone

145

What hormone is responsible for prostate growth and male pattern baldness?

DHT

146

What hormone is responsible for the growth of the penis, muscles, seminal vesicles and sperm during a growth spurt?

Testosterone

147

What are the consequences of exogenous testosterone use?

inhibition of HPO axis--> decreased intratesticular testosterone--> decreased testicular size--> azoospermia

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