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1

Fetus has renal damage: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

ACE inhibitors

(causes vasodilation; used for hypertension, CHF)

2

Fetus has absence of digits/multiple anomalies: what medication (teratogen) caused this?

Alkylating agents

(chemotherapy agents; used to damage DNA)

3

Fetus has CN VIII toxicity: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Aminoglycosides

(protein synthesis inhibitors, bacteriocidal, gram-negative antibacterial)

"A MEAN GUY hit the baby on the ear"

4

Fetus has neural tube defects, cranifacial defects, fingernail hypoplasia, dev delay, IUGR: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Carbamazepine

(for epilepsy and bipolar; anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer)

5

Fetus has vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital Mullerian anomalies: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

(synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen, thought from 1940s-1970s to cause fewer birth defects. no longer used though exposure may occur via eating beef or from breast cancer treatment)

6

Fetus has neural tube defects: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Folate antagonists

(inhibit cell division, DNA/RNA synthesis and repair and protein synthesis. Proguanil, pyrimethamine and trimethoprim selectively inhibit folate's actions in microbial organisms such as bacteria, protozoa and fungi. The majority of antifolates work by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).)

7

Fetus has Ebstein abnormality (atrialized right ventricle): what medication (teratogen) caused that?

LIthium

(treatment for bipolar, depression, Schizoaffective)

8

Fetus has aplasia cutis congenita: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Methimazole

(antithyroid, used for hyperthroidism. major SE = agranulocytosis)

Methimazole caused that hole!

9

Fetus has fetal hydantoin syndrome (microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects, IUGR, intellectual disability): what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Phenytoin

(voltage-dependent block of voltage-gated sodium channels; used for complex partial seiz and tonic-clonic)

10

Fetus has discolored teetn: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Tetracyclines

(Antibiotic. It is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It is commonly used to treat acne today, and, more recently, rosacea, and is historically important in reducing the number of deaths from cholera.)

11

Fetus has limb defects (phocomelia, micromelia - ie flipper limbs): what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Thalidomide

12

Fetus has neural tube defects due to inhibition of maternal folate absorption: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Valproate (same effect as insufficient maternal folate)

(anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.)

13

Fetus has bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, opthalmologic abnormalities: what medication (teratogen) caused that?

Warfarin

"Don't wage WARfarin on the baby; keep it HEPpy with Heparin" (heparin does not cross placenta)

14

Common cause of birth defects and intellectual disability

Mom used what substance?

Alcohol

leads to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (CNS damage, memory/functional issues, predisposition to addictions)

15

Abnormal fetal growth and fetal addiction; placental abruption

Mom used what substance?

Cocaine

16

Leading cause of low birth weight in developed countries; associated with preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD

Mom used what substance?

Nicotine, CO from smoking

17

Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)

What happened?

Lack or excess of iodine in utero

18

Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), congenital heart defects, neural tube defects

What happened in utero?

Maternal diabetes

19

High risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac abnormalities)

What happened in utero?

Excess of Vit A

20

Microcephaly, Intellectual disability

What happened in utero?

X-rays

21

Umbilical arteries return blood from where to where?

Deoxygenated blood (so opposite of what you would normally think about arteries) from fetal internal iliac arteries (off of fetal descending aorta) --> placenta

22

Umbilical vein carries blood from where to where?

Oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus (drains into fetal IVC via liver or ductus venosus)

23

Generally, aortic arch derivatives develop into what?

Arterial system

24

1st aortic arch --> ?

Part of maxillary artery (branch of external carotid)

"1st is MAXimal"

25

2nd aortic arch --> ?

Stapedial artery and hyoid artery

26

3rd aortic arch --> ?

Common Carotid artery and prox part of internal Carotid

27

4th aortic arch --> ?

Left: part of aortic arch

Right: prox part of right subclavian

"4th arch --> 4 limbs ie systemic"

28

5th aortic arch --> ?

nothing. degenerates for the most part

29

6th aortic arch --> ?

proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (left side only) ductus arteriosus

30

1st branchial cleft develops into what structure?

external auditory meatus