Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (45)
Common elements between males and females
Gonads, produce gametes and sex hormones
puberty: hypothalamus releases GnRH, releasing LH and FSH
Diamond shaped area between thighs, bounded by pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosities, and coccyx.
urogenital triangle, anal triangle.
skin covered sac holding the testes. keeps testes cool
muscles of the scrotum
cremaster: pulls up
Dartos: pulls in
carry blood vessels and nerves supplying the testes. Goes up through inguinal canal, ductus deferens
Surrounded by CT: tunica aluminia. Seminiferous tubules: site of sperm production arranged in lobules.
temporary storage site for sperm. Where sperm learns mobility
Ducts of the male reproductive system
epididimis, ductus deferens, ejactulatory duct, urethra
Glands of the male reproductive system
Seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral
Vas deferens/ ductus deferens
bring sperm into pelic cavity. Joins with ampula
produces seminal fluid
70% semen, nutrients for sperm, alkaline to reduce acidity in urethra and vagina, Clot sperm together, chemical for reverse peristalsis in females
adds prostatic fluid. contains enzymes to break down clot.
small, release bulbourethral fluid. Stimulated during excitement phase to neutralize urethra and lubricate penis.
glans, cover by prepus.
Body or shaft
Root: muscle called bulbospongeosus muscle (Forcefully contracts for ejaculation.
paired erectile bodies
single erectile body
FSH in men
stimulate sustentacular cells (nurse cells)
nurture sperm, produce androgen binding protein (keeps T high in testes to promote spermatogenesis. release inhibin: selectively inhibit FSH release (keeps sperm count in homeostatic range
LH in men
Stimulate interstitial cells
produce testosterone which stimulate spermatogenesis.
development of secondary sex characteristics, stimulate libido, muscle anabolism, bone growth, hair, agression
spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis
parts of spermatogenesis
germ cells undergo mitosis. Spermatagonia or spermatids undergo meiosis to split chromosome number in half.
parts of spermiogenesis
spermatid starts growing flagellum, sheds excess cytoplasm. grows acrosome cap (contains digestion enzymes to burrow into oocyte.
Sperm, seminal fluid, prostate fluid, bulbourethral
Sexual response in males
1. Excitement phase: PSN dilates blood vessels in erectile tissues, enjorges to produce erections. Bulbourethral fluid glands are activated.
2. Ejaculation: SNS control.
Emission: sperm moves from ductus deferens into pelvic cavity. and accessory ducts and accessory glands add secretions.
Expulsion phase: muscles in pelvic floor and bulbospongiosus muscle contract and forcfully propel semen into female reproductive tract.
Resolution: Blood flow retun to normal, penis becomes flaccid, and male enters refractory period.
endometrium (Stratum basale, stratum funtionalis)
Myometrium: reproductive smooth muscle
Perimetrium: serous layer surrounding uterus
grows an oocyte. oogonia to oocyte.
growing a follicle from primordial to vesicular
are in arrested development and contain oogonia
approximately 20 per month develop and continue meiosis to give rise to primary oocytes.
a few develop every month. one will become vesicular/tertiary follicle that contains a secondary oocyte thet is ovulated
cells that remain in ovary after oculation
results from degeneration of corpus luteum
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
Going from primordial follicle to vesicular follicle
rupture of secondary oocyte
corpus luteum to corpus albicans
1. menses: shed stratum functionalis
2. Proliferative phase: thicken functional layer due to increase of estrogen which causes mitosis.
3. Secretory phase: progesterone causes increase thickening by stimulating hypertrophy and stimulate hyperemia (increase vascularature)
FSH in women
Stimulate granular cells to nurture oocyte and release inhibin
LH in Women
stimulate theca cells: produce androgens that get converted to estrogen.
Due to an LH surge due to GnRH surge to increas estrogen and increase inhibin. inhibits FSH surge.