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Anatomy > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (45):
1

Common elements between males and females

Gonads, produce gametes and sex hormones

2

Maturation

puberty: hypothalamus releases GnRH, releasing LH and FSH

3

Perineum

Diamond shaped area between thighs, bounded by pubic symphysis, ischial tuberosities, and coccyx.
urogenital triangle, anal triangle.

4

Scrotum

skin covered sac holding the testes. keeps testes cool

5

muscles of the scrotum

cremaster: pulls up
Dartos: pulls in

6

Spermatic cord

carry blood vessels and nerves supplying the testes. Goes up through inguinal canal, ductus deferens

7

Testes

Surrounded by CT: tunica aluminia. Seminiferous tubules: site of sperm production arranged in lobules.

8

Epididimis

temporary storage site for sperm. Where sperm learns mobility

9

Ducts of the male reproductive system

epididimis, ductus deferens, ejactulatory duct, urethra

10

Glands of the male reproductive system

Seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral

11

Vas deferens/ ductus deferens

bring sperm into pelic cavity. Joins with ampula

12

Seminal vesicle

produces seminal fluid

13

seminal fluid

70% semen, nutrients for sperm, alkaline to reduce acidity in urethra and vagina, Clot sperm together, chemical for reverse peristalsis in females

14

Prostate

adds prostatic fluid. contains enzymes to break down clot.

15

bulbourethral glands

small, release bulbourethral fluid. Stimulated during excitement phase to neutralize urethra and lubricate penis.

16

Penis

glans, cover by prepus.
Body or shaft
Root: muscle called bulbospongeosus muscle (Forcefully contracts for ejaculation.

17

Corpus cavernosum

paired erectile bodies

18

Corpus Spongeosum

single erectile body

19

FSH in men

stimulate sustentacular cells (nurse cells)

20

sustentacular cells

nurture sperm, produce androgen binding protein (keeps T high in testes to promote spermatogenesis. release inhibin: selectively inhibit FSH release (keeps sperm count in homeostatic range

21

LH in men

Stimulate interstitial cells

22

interstitial cells

produce testosterone which stimulate spermatogenesis.

23

Testosterone

development of secondary sex characteristics, stimulate libido, muscle anabolism, bone growth, hair, agression

24

Spermatogenesis

spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis

25

parts of spermatogenesis

germ cells undergo mitosis. Spermatagonia or spermatids undergo meiosis to split chromosome number in half.

26

parts of spermiogenesis

spermatid starts growing flagellum, sheds excess cytoplasm. grows acrosome cap (contains digestion enzymes to burrow into oocyte.

27

Semen

Sperm, seminal fluid, prostate fluid, bulbourethral

28

Sexual response in males

1. Excitement phase: PSN dilates blood vessels in erectile tissues, enjorges to produce erections. Bulbourethral fluid glands are activated.
2. Ejaculation: SNS control.
Emission: sperm moves from ductus deferens into pelvic cavity. and accessory ducts and accessory glands add secretions.
Expulsion phase: muscles in pelvic floor and bulbospongiosus muscle contract and forcfully propel semen into female reproductive tract.
Resolution: Blood flow retun to normal, penis becomes flaccid, and male enters refractory period.

29

Uterus

endometrium (Stratum basale, stratum funtionalis)
Myometrium: reproductive smooth muscle
Perimetrium: serous layer surrounding uterus

30

Oogenesis

grows an oocyte. oogonia to oocyte.

31

Follicular genesis

growing a follicle from primordial to vesicular

32

Primordial follicles

are in arrested development and contain oogonia

33

Primary follicle

approximately 20 per month develop and continue meiosis to give rise to primary oocytes.

34

Secondary follicle

a few develop every month. one will become vesicular/tertiary follicle that contains a secondary oocyte thet is ovulated

35

Corpus luteum

cells that remain in ovary after oculation

36

corpus albicans

results from degeneration of corpus luteum

37

Ovarian cycle

follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase

38

Follicular phase

Going from primordial follicle to vesicular follicle

39

ovulation

rupture of secondary oocyte

40

Luteal Phase

corpus luteum to corpus albicans

41

Menstral cycle

1. menses: shed stratum functionalis
2. Proliferative phase: thicken functional layer due to increase of estrogen which causes mitosis.
3. Secretory phase: progesterone causes increase thickening by stimulating hypertrophy and stimulate hyperemia (increase vascularature)

42

FSH in women

Stimulate granular cells to nurture oocyte and release inhibin

43

LH in Women

stimulate theca cells: produce androgens that get converted to estrogen.

44

ovulation hormones

Due to an LH surge due to GnRH surge to increas estrogen and increase inhibin. inhibits FSH surge.

45

Luteal Phase

low levels of LH stimulate corpus luteum to begin secreting Progesteron starting negative feedback loop on GnRH