Reproduction & Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproduction & Development Deck (43):
1

Asexual Reproduction

Produce offspring genetically identical to parent
Advantageous when environmental conditions are stable

2

Fission

Asexual Reproduction
The separation of an organism into 2 new cells

3

Budding

Asexual Reproduction
Involves splitting off of new individuals from existing ones

4

Fragmentation

Asexual Reproduction
When single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into new individuals

5

Parthenogenesis

Asexual Reproduction
Involves development of egg without fertilization, result adult = haploid

6

Testes

Make gonads; site of sperm formation

7

Vas Deferens

The duct that carries sperm during ejaculation from epididymus to penis

8

Prostate Gland

Secrete semen directly into urethra

9

Scrotum

Holds testes; the colder the temperature there enables sperm to survive

10

Urethra

Tube that carries semen & urine

11

Ovary

Meiosis & where secondary oocyte forms prior to birth

12

Oviduct/Fallopian Tube

Where fertilization occurs; after ovulation, egg moves through oviduct to uterus

13

Uterus

Where embryo develops

14

Vagina

Birth canal; baby passes through cervix into it

15

Cervix

Mouth of uterus

16

Endometrium

Lining of uterus

17

Follicular Phase

Follicles grow & secrete increasing amounts of estrogens in response to FSH from anterior pituitary

18

Spermatogenesis

Process of sperm production, continuous process - begins as LH induces testes to produce testosterone - together FSH & testosterone stimulate sperm production in testes

19

Oogenesis

Production of ova by meiotic cell division

20

Cleavage Furrow
(Embryonic Development)

Rapid mitotic cell division of zygote that begins immediately after fertilization, produce blastula

21

Gastrulation
(Embryonic Development)

Process by which blastula develops into a gastrula

22

Organogenesis
(Embryonic Development)

Process by which cells continue to differentiate, producing organs from the 3 embryonic germ layers

23

Chorion
(Bird Embryo)

Under shell, allows for diffusion of respiratory gases between outside environment & inside of cell

24

Yolk Sac
(Bird Embryo)

Encloses the yolk, the food for the growing embryo

25

Amnion
(Bird Embryo)

Encloses the embryo in protective amniotic fluid

26

Allantois
(Bird Embryo)

Like placenta in mammals
Is the conduit for respiratory gases to & from embryo, where nitrogenous waste uric acid accumulates until chick hatches

27

Reproductive Cycles

Controlled by a combination of hormonal & environmental cues

28

Sexual Reproduction

Offers increased variation among offspring & the possibility of greater reproductive success in a changing environment

29

Hermaphrodites

Can mate with any animal of their species
Both animals act as male & female, and both donate & receive sperm

30

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction

Enables reproduction without a mate
Creates numerous offspring quickly
No expenditure of energy

31

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

Variation
Offspring is product of both parents, may be better to survive than either

32

Semen

Nutritive fluid that carries sperm

33

Menstrual Cycle

Series of changes in the ovary & uterus that is controlled by the interaction of hormones

34

Ovulation

Secondary oocyte ruptures out of ovaries in response to increase in LH from anterior pituitary

35

Follicles

Several tiny cavities in ovaries

36

Luteal Phase

After ovulation
Corpus luteum forms & secretes estrogen & progesterone that thicken the endometrium

37

Menstruation

If implantation of embryo does not occur
Buildup of lining of uterus breaks down & is shed

38

Corpus Luteum

Cavity the follicle left behind

39

Blastula

Fluid-filled ball of cells produced at the end of cleavage

40

Blastomeres

Individual cells of blastula

41

Blastocoel

Fluid-filled center

42

Gastrula

Three-layered embryo
Consist of ectoderm, endoderm & mesoderm that will develop into parts of the adult animal

43

Extraembryonic Membrane

Structures that arise outside the bird embryo