In animals, what is the female sex cell?
In animals, what is the male sex cell?
In plants, what is the female sex cell?
In plants, what is the male sex cell?
What is the function of the testicles in males?
They produce millions of sperm cells
What is the function of the penis?
1) To pass urine out of the body
2) To pass semen out of the body
Where does fertilisation take place in the female body?
In the fallopian tube (also called oviduct)
What is the function of the ovaries?
The produce egg cells
In which part of the female reproductive system does the foetus develop?
How long is the gestation period (pregnancy) for humans?
40 weeks (9 months)
In general how may days does the menstrual cycle last for?
What is puberty?
Puberty is the time when sex organs begin to release hormones that cause changes in the body. These changes are physical and emotional changes.
The changes in puberty are due to the release of ___________.
Which hormones are released in females during puberty?
Which hormone is released by the male body during puberty?
At what age does puberty usually begin for girls?
Females usually start puberty between 8-13 years old.
At what age does puberty usually begin for boys?
Males usually start puberty between 10-15 years old.
Name 3 physical changes that occur during male puberty.
- Grow taller and heavier
- Nose and jaw get bigger and face gets longer
- Get more muscles
- Hair and skin can become oily and you may get spots
- Body sweats more
- Hair grows on the face, under the armpits, around the genitals (pubic hair).
- May get more hair on arms, legs and chest.
- Voice gets deeper
- Penis and testicles grow bigger and longer
Name 3 physical changes that occur during female puberty.
- Get taller and heavier
- Bones grow bigger and heavier
- Hips get wider and more curvy
- Face changes shape
- Voice gets a little deeper
- Hair grows under the armpits, around the genitals (pubic hair)
- Hair on arms and legs grows darker
- Breasts and nipples get larger
- Ovaries start to release eggs (one per month)
- Periods starts
- Body sweats more
What is ovulation?
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary.
On what day of the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
If a woman is pregnant, what happens to the lining of the uterus?
The lining of the uterus stays in place to protect the growing foetus.
What items may a girl use to protect her clothes from the period?
Tampons, sanitary pads or a menstrual cup
What is the placenta?
The placenta is an organ attached to the lining of the womb during pregnancy.
It keeps the unborn baby’s blood supply separate from the mother’s blood supply, as well as providing a link between the two.
What is the job/function of the placenta?
1) The placenta facilitates the exchange of materials between the mother andfoetus
2) The placenta produces hormones that help maintain the pregnancy.
What is a zygote?
An fertilised egg cell.
When a fertilised egg divides, it starts to form an __________.
What does the umbilical cord do?
The umbilical cord connects the foetus with the placenta.
Which fluid protects the baby in the uterus?
What is the name of the first stage of birth?
What happens during the second stage of birth?
This stage begins when the cervix is fully dilated (about 10 cm wide).
As pressure on the cervix increases, the head of the baby is pushed out through the vaginal opening.
What happens during dilation (first stage of birth)?
This starts when the cervix is about 3–4 cm dilated.
The uterus continues to contract, causing a sac around the baby to break releasing amniotic fluid (known as a woman’s waters breaking).
What kind of substances are harmful to a growing foetus?
Smoking, drinking alcohol, drugs as these can all pass to the foetus via the placenta.
In which part of the flowering plant would you find the pollen grains?
What is the name of the part the holds up the anther?
What is the stamen?
The male part of the flowering plant.
What is the carpel?
The female part of the flowering plant.
Explain how the pollen grain can fertilise the ovule.
The pollen grain lands on the stigma. The pollen grain nucleus travels down a pollen tube to the ovary and fertilises the ovule.
What are the 6 stages of a flowering plant life cycle?
3) Seed formation
4) Seed dispersal
6) Growth of a new plant
The growth of a seed into a new plant.
Name the conditions required for germination to occur successfully.
Oxygen, warmth, and water
Pollination involves the transfer of pollen (male gamete) from the anther to the stigma (outermost female part)
What are the two types of pollination?
1) Self - pollination (same plant)
2) Cross - pollination (different plants)