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Flashcards in Reproductive physiology Deck (71)
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1

Where GnRH, LH, FSH and Testosterone released

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
Hypothalamus

Luteinising hormone (LH)
Anterior pituitary

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Anterior pituitary

Testosterone (T)
Testis

2

Where do inhibin and testosterone negatively feedback

Inhibin from sertoli cells (in response to FSH) feed back on ant. pituitary to reduced FSH

Testosterone from Leydig cells (in response to LH) feed back on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to reduce LH

3

Outline the chromosome number in each of the following cells from spermatogenesis:

Primordial germ cell

Spermatogonium

Primary spermatocyte

Secondary spermatocyte

Spermatids

Mature sperm

all 46 until secondary spermatocyte

secndary spermatocyte onwards has 23

4

What are spermatogonium

The spermatogonium come from mitotic division of primordial germ cells

5

Testes are the source of what

Sperm

Testosterone

6

Function of human male reproductive tract


When is testosterone important

Ihe two main functions are the provision of androgens (primarily testosterone) to initiate and sustain the necessary male phenotype,

and the production of mature sperm.


Testosterone importnat for IU growth of males but not importnat until age 12 for puberty

7

Does the name of the hormones affecting male reproductive tract (FSH and LH) reflect its action

In the testes there are no follicles. The hormone names are derived from information obtained on the female reproductive system

8

Waht is the pattenr of LH and FSH release

Pulsatile (more pulsatile for LH)

9

Where are the leydig cells

In the interstitium

10

What is the release of teststerone like

Cyclic

It acts locally at the site of production in the testes then is released into the circulation, from where it can affect the whole body.

11

What is sertoli cell funtion based on

FSH and testosterone (both required)

ABP (androgen binding protein very important)

12

Compartments of the testes

Seminiferous tubles

Interstitial

13

Where are the mature sperm in the seminiferous tubles

In the lumen

The lumen leads to epidiymis

14

Outline the divisions taking place in sperm cell division

Mitotic division first (to create a large enough pool)

Then late stages meiotic division to develop 4 haploid cells

15

When does male reproductive function start

When does it function

Starts at puberty

Functions continually

and throughout the rest of life

16

Does sperm quality or quantity decrease with age?

Sperm quantity and quality generally decreases with increasing age

17

Differentiate the function of males and female reproducitve system

Male functions continuously

Female functions CYCLICALLY

18

Does egg quality decrease with age>

Yes

19

Function of FSH and LH in women

FSH stimulates (some) development of ovarian follicles &; 17b-estradiol synthesis

LH stimulates progesterone production

20

What is difference between LHRH and GnRH

Same thing

GnRH is very pulsatile LH release is matched to this

But FSH less pulsatile

21

Function of steroids in females

Act on reproductive tract

And act on the uterus too

22

What happens with GnRH, FSH and LH and oestradiol effect in folluclar phase, midcyle and luteal phase

In follicula rphase, estradoil is reducing GnRH release from hypothalamus and FSH/LH from the ant pit.

In the midcycle, oestradiol is then positively feedbacking on hypothalamus and ant pit to increase GnRH and FSH/LH

In the luteal phase, same as follicular phase BUT the main steroid being produced by ovary is progesterone not estradiol

23

T/f only progesterone is present in the luteal phase

F.... also moderately high oestrogen production.

For implantation, progesterone dominance in the presence of oestrogen required

24

What is the average menstrual cycle length

28 days

on average... stress can change things

25

If the menstrual cycle changes in length, which part does this

The luteal phase increases in length (follicular phase constant)

26

What is the thickness of endometrium at minimum (ie. after menses) to maximum (high progesterone)

2-4mm at min.

7-16mm at max

27

What hormones are important for which stage of the menstrual cycle (uterus)

ESTROGEN --> proliferative stage

PROGESTERONE DOMINANCE with oestrogen --> secretory phase

28

How long does corpus luteum make steroids for

Arond a week to ten days following ovulation

GnRH falls towards the end of the cycle, and so will LH. So progesterone also falls towards end of secretory phase

29

How are eggs developed

Primordial follicle (developed during intrauterine life.... born with millions)

MINORITY mature into:
Primary follicle

30

t/f primordial follicle and primary follice both contain primary oocyte

True...