Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (105):
What are the two pouches called in the reproductive system
3 parts of the broad ligament
Where does the ovarian ovary arise from ?
Arises from the aorta at the level of the renal artery
reproductive hormone excess can cause? in women
granulosa cell tumour
polycystic ovarian syndrome
reproductive hormone deficiency
hormone hypersensitivity ?
hormone resistance ?
testicular feminisation syndromes
5α-Reductase type 2 deficiency
characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome?
lack of menses
complex hormonal imbalance - FSH AND LH re out of balance and there is no negative feedback. leads to elavated LH and a 2:1 ratio to FSH . increased LH leads to increased androgen production
what is the difference between steroids and peptides hormones
steroid hormones are derived from enzymatic modifacation of cholesterol
Peptide hormones are synthesised by amino acids
what is true for both steroids and peptides ?
receptors for each can be divided into 2 groups
- present on cell surface
-intracellular and interact with lipophilic hormones .
present in serum and tissues in low concs
lipid soluble and permeable to membranes so are not stored but synthesised then released
what are oestrogens
circulating oestrogens are a mix of oestrone and oestradiol
involved in the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
where does oestrone come from?
secreted directly from ovary or converted from androstenedione
oestradiol produced from..
produced from the ovary , derived by the direct synthesis in developing follicles or through conversion of oestrone
the ovary produces androstenediol , DHEA and small amounts of testosterone. Adrenal cortex contributes approximately half the daily production of androstenedione and DHEA and essentially all of the sulfated form of DHEAs.
what is an important source of androgens in females
the adrenal gland
how are progestogens produced
synthesised from cholesterol via pregnenolone .
produced primarily in the corpus luteum of the ovary , the adrenal glands and in the placenta .
what does progesterone do?
endometrial development - smooth muscle control
maintenance of pregnancy
aromatase deficiency ...
prevents oestrogen synthesis , ambiguous genitalia
excessive conversion of androgens to oestrogens , feminisation of male genitalia
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
21- hydroxylase deficiency
- deficiency 11 beta hydroxylase activity - less common
- ambiuous genitalia , precocious puberty, anovulation , hirsutism
mechanism of combined pill
prevents the ovaries from releasing the oocyte , they also thicken the cervical mucus and endometrial lining to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. this happens cause progesterone and oestrogen have a negative feedback mechanism on the pituitary gland , thus reducing the pulsatile frequency of the gonadotropin release from the anterioir pituitary . the lack of LH surge mid cycle prevents the release of the oocyte.
mini pill mechanism
progesterone only pill. Thickens the mucus in the cervix preventing the sperm from reaching the egg. sometimes it may also prevent ovulation .
what does chlamydia do?
causes infertility by blocking the uterine tube
what does endometriosis do?
causes infertility due to normal uterine tissue growing on the outside of the uterus.
what epithelium is the epididymis lined with? and what feature do they have?
pseusostratified column ar epithelium.
stereocilia to increase surface area for degenerated sperm
peristaltic contractions are what
Peristaltic contractions of the smooth muscle layer help conduct the sperm to the ductus deferens during sexual arousal. The majority of spermatozoa are stored in the tail of the epididymis.
what is the ductus deferens
continuous with epididymis
it begins at the tail of the epididymis and and as part of the spermatic cord, ascends through the inguinal canal.
what fluid does the seminal vsicles release ?
-an alkaline viscous fluid which helps to neutralise the acidity of the femalre reproductive tract..
- secrete fructose which are easily metabolised by sperm and used for ATP production
- prostaglandins which aid sperm mobility and stimulate uterine contractions
prostate gland ?
encircled the urethra as it leaves the bladder.
the glandular tissue of the gland consists of a cluster of 30-50 COMPOUND TUBULOALVEOLAR GLANDS
what does the prostate secrete
prostatic fluid , slightly acidic solution makes up 20-30% of the semen. it contains antibiotic properties to prevent UTIs in males . it also has citrate -source of ATP- acid phosphatase and proteolytic enzymes which liquify coagulated semen.
what bulbourethral gland produce
they are compound tubular glands that secrete thick mucus that lubricates the glans of the penis. they open into the spongy urethra
what epithelium is the urethra lined by
what two muscles make the ingunial canal
UPPER WALL - Internal oblique muscle
- transverse abdominus muscle
what makes up the anterior wall of the inguinal canal
aponeurosis of external oblique
aponeurosis of internal oblique
what makes up lower wall of inguinal canal
posterior wall of inguinal canal is made of...
what is fertilisation
fusion of 2 haploid gametes , each containing 23 chromosomes producing a diploid cell containing 46 chromosomes . due to the penetration of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell.
what must sperm undergo?
maturation( sperm mature following their release from the testes ) and capacitation ( sperm nicreases motility and gains the ability to penetrate
where does fertilisation occur
the ampulla of the uterine tube. contractions of the uterine muscularity and ciliary currents help with sperm motility towards the secondary oocyte.
what phase of development is the secondary oocyte trapped in when travelling down the uterine tube:
metaphase of meiosis II
what does the acrosome reaction cause
a sudden rise in calcium ions which causes
- exocytosis of cortical granules - these vesicles sit on the interior of the oocyte and are quickly released in the perlvetelline space once the 2 membranes fuse.(they function to inactive sperm recepetors and harden zona pellucida ) this prevents polyspermy
1 year of unprotected vaginal intercourse in the absencof e of known causes of infertility in a women reproductive age
genetic conditions producing infertile sper m
klinefelters or cystic fibrosis
what is semen analysis
1.5mL , PH 7.2 , 3 Days abstinence prior to semen analysis. sample must reach lab witin 1 hour of ejaculation.
what is a hysterosalpingogram
a radiology procedure using a dye injected into the uterine cavity . it shows whether the fallopian tubes are blocked/open where it is blocked
what could ovulatory disorders be caused by?
hypothalamic pituitary failure
hypothalamic pituitaru ovarian dysfunction
ovarian failure from turners syndrome
what can endometriosis be caused by?
retrograde menstruation - flows backwards into the abdominal cavity
what is the anti-mullerian hormone in females
women are born with their life time supply of eggs and these gradually decrease in both quality and quantity.
AMH is a hormone secreted by cells in developing egg sacs (follicles) . the level of AMH in a womens blood is generally a good indicator of her ovarian reserve
name some cinical females tests
FSH LH( Gonadotrophins )
Sex hormone binding globulin
tubal patency test(HSG)
genetic screening (turners syndrome)
male reproductive clinical tests
testicular descent - check for cryptorchidism
urine test - retrograde ejaculation
what is the development of the testes due to?
SRY(sexdetermining region of Y chromosome )
whcih acts on the bipotential gonad.
two functions of testes?
produce sperm by process of spermatogenesis
process by which immature stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate and differentiate into a mature sperm
how long does it take to produce sperm
stages of spermatogenesis
proliferation (spermatogonia divide several times)
meiosis (produces haploid cells)
spermiogenesis (differentiation process)
where does proliferation of spermatogonia take place `
what is A dark for?
a back up if there is severe damage to spermatogenesis (irradiation)
what are the different stages of meiosis before spermiogensis ?
resting primary spermatocyte
what happens at leptotene
cells move of the basement membrane
through the blood testes barrier
which means the spermatids and spermatocytes are sealed off inside the lumen of the tubule by the blood testis barrier between sertoli cells .
this is important because haploid cells are protected from the immune system in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
process of spermiogenesis
acrosome forms from golgi
tail develops from centriole
cytoplasm re-distributes - residual body lost
mitochondria rearrange in middle piece
is spermatogenesis a continuous process
yes , as a B spermatogonium develops in to a spermatocyte and passes the blood testes barrier another B spermatogonium forms behind it.
what stimulate sertoli funtion
FSH - spermatogenesis
What stimulates leydig cells
LH to secrete testosterone
what does testosterone do
stimulates sertoli cells and peritubular myloid cells
testosterone secreted into blood acts to maintain androgen dependent structures and stimulates sex drive in males
what do the hormones control spermatogenesis
FSH stimulates spermatogonial proliferation
FSH and testosterone stimulate spermatogonial differentiation to spermatocytes
TESTOSTERONE is essential for passage of spermatocytes through meiosis
what does the epididiymis do
functions to induce sperm maturation
non-motile , non-fertile sperm enter at the head and then become fertile and motile as they travel down the epididymis
tail acts as a sperm storage area.
how do endocrine disruptors work?
1. mimic hormone biological activity by binding to receptor and activating it (agonistic) - too much hormone activity
- activity and inappropriate time
2. bind to receptor so preventing binding of the natural hormone (antagonistic) - prevents normal hormonal action
3. interfere with metabolic processes in body - affect synthesis or breakdown of natural hormones
what problems does endocrine disruptors cause
reduced fertility , increased incidence of of diseases
examples of ED
DES - vaginal cancer
blood supply , lymphatics of ovary
BS - ovarian artery - arises from aorta at level of renal art
VD -ovarian vein , drains to IVC on right , Left renl vein on L
L- drain to aortic nodes at level of renal vessels
BS , VD and L of uterus
BS - uterine artery , branch of internal iliac art.
VD - uterine vein drains to internal iliac vein
L- drainage of body and cervix differ - body to para-aortic
cervix to internal iliac nodes
what does excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis form in the testes
BS , VD and L
BS - testicular art
VD - pampiniform plexus -> testicular vein -> IVC on R and renal vein on L
L- testis to para-aortic nodes
scrotum to inguinal nodes
what is cryptorchidism
part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)
undescended or impalpable testes
can be bilateral / unilateral
long term consequence on testicular function , spermatogenesis and risk of testicular cancer.(tetses in the abdomen at wron temp- less developed testi and impaired spermatogenesis )
what surgeyr corrects cryptorchidism ?
what medical treatment is there ?
- hCG stimulation test
- LHRH (LH releasing hormone )
risk factors of cryptorchidsm ?
low birth weight <2.5kg
what is hypospodias
ectopically positioned urethral meatus lies proximal to the normal site and on the ventral aspect of the penis and in severe cases opens up onto the scrotum.
1/300 men , most common panis anomaly.
could be due to hormonal fluctuations , advanced maternal age , teratogenic drugs and ED chemical s
Explain the feedback switch from negative to positive at the time of ovulation
OESTROGEN has both a + and - feedback effect on the hypothalamus .
during most of the menstrual cycle , oestradiol has a NEGATIVE feedback effect on the release of GnRH.
However, after sustained high levels of oestradiol (coming from the developing follicle) around day 12-14 there is a switch in the feedback mechanism to POSITIVE .the levels have to increase by 200-400 % for 48 hours to cause the switch. leading to a surge in release of GnRH which initiates ovulation by increase of LH . once ovulation has occured , oestradiol levels fall back to the threshold (back to negative feedback )
what are the contents of the broad lig.
fallopian tubes , ovaries , ovarian art, vein and lymphatics . uterine art , vein , lymphatics , round lig of ovary and round lig of uterus.
what is the main occupant in the inguinal canal?
spermatic cord in males and round lig in females
what is a direct hernia
wall of the abdominal muscle is weak, abdominal contents herniate through a weak spot in the fascia of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal which is formed by the transversalis fascia
occur when abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring , lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels ; this may be caused by failure of embryonic closure of the processus vaginalis
what is capacitation
Physiological changes in sperm to give them the ability to penetrate and fertilise an oocyte
Continuing process that occurs during sperm transport through the female reproductive tract
Epithelial interactions between sperm and mucosal surface of the uterine tube
Removal of a glycoprotein coat and seminal plasma proteins around the acrosomal region of the sperm
WHere do these hormones come from?
human chorionic gonadtrophin
granulosa cells express aromatase which converts androgen to oestrogens which then get secreted
what layer is shed during menstruation
Why does the theca interna ned blood vessels
has an endocrine function, steroid hormones need to be transported to BV
epitheilium of vagina
non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelium - resists wear and tear
Where does vaginal mucus come from
Mainly from glands of the uterine cervix (greater vestibular glands of Bartholin at the entry to the vagina do produce some mucus, but not in significant amounts)
Which tissue layer of the uterine wall is the thickest? Why?
Myometrium – to help deliver the child at parturition
why does the stratum basalis remain during menstruation
it has an independent blood supply from the straight arteries . and they are the source of new growth in next cycle . bastes
what kind of joint in the pubic symphysis
what does the sacral foramina transmit
anterior and posterior branches of the sacral nerves
what kind of joint is the sacroiliac joint
what two clinical conditions can affect and older man
benign prostatic hyperplasia
smooth muscle layers of the ductus deferens
what are stereocilia
non-motile apical modifications of the cells , closely related to microvilli
epithelium of ductus deferens
pseudostratified , columnar with stereocilia
what is varicocele
abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform plexus in the scrotum
what tissue forms stroma of prostate and what condition is associated wiht it
fibromuscular , benign prostatic hypertrophy
The prostatic secretion is produced by the cuboidal/low columnar epithelial cells. clinical condition associated with this is...
what is the name of eosinophilic bodies present in the prostate
Female: round ligament of the uterus. Where does it begin and end? What are its coverings?
It originates at the uterine horns, where the ovarian tubes enter the uterus and attaches to the labia majora passing through the inguinal canal.
Its coverings are the transversalis fascia.
What do the urethral folds become in a) the female and b) the male?
Male – Scrotal raphe, spongy urethra and ventral aspect of the penis
Female - Labia minora