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Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (105):
1

What are the two pouches called in the reproductive system

Uterovesical pouch

Rectouterine pouch

2

3 parts of the broad ligament

Mesometrium
Mesosalphinx
Mesovarium

3

Where does the ovarian ovary arise from ?

Arises from the aorta at the level of the renal artery

4

reproductive hormone excess can cause? in women

teratoma
granulosa cell tumour
polycystic ovarian syndrome

5

reproductive hormone deficiency

hypogonadism
klinefelters
turners
kallmans syndrome
hypopituitarism

6

hormone hypersensitivity ?

hirsutism

7

hormone resistance ?

testicular feminisation syndromes
Reifenstein’s syndrome
5α-Reductase type 2 deficiency

8

characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome?

infertility
no ovulation
lack of menses
weight gain
hirsutism
complex hormonal imbalance - FSH AND LH re out of balance and there is no negative feedback. leads to elavated LH and a 2:1 ratio to FSH . increased LH leads to increased androgen production

9

what is the difference between steroids and peptides hormones

steroid hormones are derived from enzymatic modifacation of cholesterol
Peptide hormones are synthesised by amino acids

10

what is true for both steroids and peptides ?

receptors for each can be divided into 2 groups
- present on cell surface
-intracellular and interact with lipophilic hormones .

present in serum and tissues in low concs

11

lipid soluble and permeable to membranes so are not stored but synthesised then released

steroid hormones

12

what are oestrogens

circulating oestrogens are a mix of oestrone and oestradiol
involved in the development of female secondary sex characteristics.

13

where does oestrone come from?

secreted directly from ovary or converted from androstenedione

14

oestradiol produced from..

produced from the ovary , derived by the direct synthesis in developing follicles or through conversion of oestrone

15

androgens ?

the ovary produces androstenediol , DHEA and small amounts of testosterone. Adrenal cortex contributes approximately half the daily production of androstenedione and DHEA and essentially all of the sulfated form of DHEAs.

16

what is an important source of androgens in females

the adrenal gland

17

how are progestogens produced

synthesised from cholesterol via pregnenolone .
produced primarily in the corpus luteum of the ovary , the adrenal glands and in the placenta .

18

what does progesterone do?

endometrial development - smooth muscle control
maintenance of pregnancy

19

aromatase deficiency ...

prevents oestrogen synthesis , ambiguous genitalia

20

aromatase excess

excessive conversion of androgens to oestrogens , feminisation of male genitalia

21

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

21- hydroxylase deficiency
- deficiency 11 beta hydroxylase activity - less common
- ambiuous genitalia , precocious puberty, anovulation , hirsutism

22

mechanism of combined pill

prevents the ovaries from releasing the oocyte , they also thicken the cervical mucus and endometrial lining to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. this happens cause progesterone and oestrogen have a negative feedback mechanism on the pituitary gland , thus reducing the pulsatile frequency of the gonadotropin release from the anterioir pituitary . the lack of LH surge mid cycle prevents the release of the oocyte.

23

mini pill mechanism

progesterone only pill. Thickens the mucus in the cervix preventing the sperm from reaching the egg. sometimes it may also prevent ovulation .

24

what does chlamydia do?

causes infertility by blocking the uterine tube

25

what does endometriosis do?

causes infertility due to normal uterine tissue growing on the outside of the uterus.

26

what epithelium is the epididymis lined with? and what feature do they have?

pseusostratified column ar epithelium.
stereocilia to increase surface area for degenerated sperm

27

peristaltic contractions are what

Peristaltic contractions of the smooth muscle layer help conduct the sperm to the ductus deferens during sexual arousal. The majority of spermatozoa are stored in the tail of the epididymis.

28

what is the ductus deferens

continuous with epididymis
it begins at the tail of the epididymis and and as part of the spermatic cord, ascends through the inguinal canal.

29

what fluid does the seminal vsicles release ?

-an alkaline viscous fluid which helps to neutralise the acidity of the femalre reproductive tract..

- secrete fructose which are easily metabolised by sperm and used for ATP production

- prostaglandins which aid sperm mobility and stimulate uterine contractions

30

prostate gland ?

encircled the urethra as it leaves the bladder.
the glandular tissue of the gland consists of a cluster of 30-50 COMPOUND TUBULOALVEOLAR GLANDS

31

what does the prostate secrete

prostatic fluid , slightly acidic solution makes up 20-30% of the semen. it contains antibiotic properties to prevent UTIs in males . it also has citrate -source of ATP- acid phosphatase and proteolytic enzymes which liquify coagulated semen.

32

what bulbourethral gland produce

they are compound tubular glands that secrete thick mucus that lubricates the glans of the penis. they open into the spongy urethra

33

what epithelium is the urethra lined by

transitional

34

what two muscles make the ingunial canal

UPPER WALL - Internal oblique muscle
- transverse abdominus muscle

35

what makes up the anterior wall of the inguinal canal

aponeurosis of external oblique
aponeurosis of internal oblique

36

what makes up lower wall of inguinal canal

inguinal ligament
lacunar ligament

37

posterior wall of inguinal canal is made of...

transversalis fascia
conjoint tendon

38

what is fertilisation

fusion of 2 haploid gametes , each containing 23 chromosomes producing a diploid cell containing 46 chromosomes . due to the penetration of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell.

39

what must sperm undergo?

maturation( sperm mature following their release from the testes ) and capacitation ( sperm nicreases motility and gains the ability to penetrate

40

where does fertilisation occur

the ampulla of the uterine tube. contractions of the uterine muscularity and ciliary currents help with sperm motility towards the secondary oocyte.

41

what phase of development is the secondary oocyte trapped in when travelling down the uterine tube:

metaphase of meiosis II

42

what does the acrosome reaction cause

a sudden rise in calcium ions which causes
- exocytosis of cortical granules - these vesicles sit on the interior of the oocyte and are quickly released in the perlvetelline space once the 2 membranes fuse.(they function to inactive sperm recepetors and harden zona pellucida ) this prevents polyspermy

43

define infertility

1 year of unprotected vaginal intercourse in the absencof e of known causes of infertility in a women reproductive age

44

genetic conditions producing infertile sper m

klinefelters or cystic fibrosis

45

what is semen analysis

1.5mL , PH 7.2 , 3 Days abstinence prior to semen analysis. sample must reach lab witin 1 hour of ejaculation.

46

what is a hysterosalpingogram

a radiology procedure using a dye injected into the uterine cavity . it shows whether the fallopian tubes are blocked/open where it is blocked

47

what could ovulatory disorders be caused by?

hypothalamic pituitary failure
hypothalamic pituitaru ovarian dysfunction
ovarian failure from turners syndrome

48

what can endometriosis be caused by?

retrograde menstruation - flows backwards into the abdominal cavity

49

what is the anti-mullerian hormone in females

women are born with their life time supply of eggs and these gradually decrease in both quality and quantity.
AMH is a hormone secreted by cells in developing egg sacs (follicles) . the level of AMH in a womens blood is generally a good indicator of her ovarian reserve

50

name some cinical females tests

AMH
FSH LH( Gonadotrophins )
Sex hormone binding globulin
transvaginal ultrasound
tubal patency test(HSG)
genetic screening (turners syndrome)

51

male reproductive clinical tests

semen analysis
Gonadotropins
testosterone
SHBG
testicular descent - check for cryptorchidism
physical exam
urine test - retrograde ejaculation

52

what is the development of the testes due to?

SRY(sexdetermining region of Y chromosome )
whcih acts on the bipotential gonad.

53

two functions of testes?

secrete testosterone
produce sperm by process of spermatogenesis

54

spermatogenesis ?

process by which immature stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate and differentiate into a mature sperm

55

how long does it take to produce sperm

64 days

56

stages of spermatogenesis

proliferation (spermatogonia divide several times)
meiosis (produces haploid cells)
spermiogenesis (differentiation process)

57

where does proliferation of spermatogonia take place `

basement membrane

58

what is A dark for?

a back up if there is severe damage to spermatogenesis (irradiation)

59

what are the different stages of meiosis before spermiogensis ?

B spermatogonia
resting primary spermatocyte
leptotene spcyte
zygotene spcyte
pachytene spcyte
diplotene spcyte
secondary spcyte
round spermatid

60

what happens at leptotene

cells move of the basement membrane
through the blood testes barrier
which means the spermatids and spermatocytes are sealed off inside the lumen of the tubule by the blood testis barrier between sertoli cells .
this is important because haploid cells are protected from the immune system in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

61

process of spermiogenesis

nuclear condensation
acrosome forms from golgi
tail develops from centriole
cytoplasm re-distributes - residual body lost
mitochondria rearrange in middle piece

62

is spermatogenesis a continuous process

yes , as a B spermatogonium develops in to a spermatocyte and passes the blood testes barrier another B spermatogonium forms behind it.

63

what stimulate sertoli funtion

FSH - spermatogenesis

64

What stimulates leydig cells

LH to secrete testosterone

65

what does testosterone do

stimulates sertoli cells and peritubular myloid cells

testosterone secreted into blood acts to maintain androgen dependent structures and stimulates sex drive in males

66

what do the hormones control spermatogenesis

FSH stimulates spermatogonial proliferation
FSH and testosterone stimulate spermatogonial differentiation to spermatocytes
TESTOSTERONE is essential for passage of spermatocytes through meiosis

67

what does the epididiymis do

functions to induce sperm maturation
non-motile , non-fertile sperm enter at the head and then become fertile and motile as they travel down the epididymis
tail acts as a sperm storage area.

68

how do endocrine disruptors work?

1. mimic hormone biological activity by binding to receptor and activating it (agonistic) - too much hormone activity
- activity and inappropriate time
2. bind to receptor so preventing binding of the natural hormone (antagonistic) - prevents normal hormonal action

3. interfere with metabolic processes in body - affect synthesis or breakdown of natural hormones

69

what problems does endocrine disruptors cause

reduced fertility , increased incidence of of diseases

70

examples of ED

phthalates
DES - vaginal cancer

71

blood supply , lymphatics of ovary

BS - ovarian artery - arises from aorta at level of renal art
VD -ovarian vein , drains to IVC on right , Left renl vein on L
L- drain to aortic nodes at level of renal vessels

72

BS , VD and L of uterus

BS - uterine artery , branch of internal iliac art.
VD - uterine vein drains to internal iliac vein
L- drainage of body and cervix differ - body to para-aortic
cervix to internal iliac nodes

73

what does excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis form in the testes

hydrocele

74

BS , VD and L

BS - testicular art
VD - pampiniform plexus -> testicular vein -> IVC on R and renal vein on L
L- testis to para-aortic nodes
scrotum to inguinal nodes

75

what is cryptorchidism

part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)
undescended or impalpable testes
can be bilateral / unilateral
long term consequence on testicular function , spermatogenesis and risk of testicular cancer.(tetses in the abdomen at wron temp- less developed testi and impaired spermatogenesis )

76

what surgeyr corrects cryptorchidism ?
what medical treatment is there ?

orchidopexy
- hCG stimulation test
- LHRH (LH releasing hormone )

77

risk factors of cryptorchidsm ?

low birth weight <2.5kg
prematurity
maternal diabetes
smoking

78

what is hypospodias

ectopically positioned urethral meatus lies proximal to the normal site and on the ventral aspect of the penis and in severe cases opens up onto the scrotum.
1/300 men , most common panis anomaly.
could be due to hormonal fluctuations , advanced maternal age , teratogenic drugs and ED chemical s

79

Explain the feedback switch from negative to positive at the time of ovulation

OESTROGEN has both a + and - feedback effect on the hypothalamus .
during most of the menstrual cycle , oestradiol has a NEGATIVE feedback effect on the release of GnRH.
However, after sustained high levels of oestradiol (coming from the developing follicle) around day 12-14 there is a switch in the feedback mechanism to POSITIVE .the levels have to increase by 200-400 % for 48 hours to cause the switch. leading to a surge in release of GnRH which initiates ovulation by increase of LH . once ovulation has occured , oestradiol levels fall back to the threshold (back to negative feedback )

80

what are the contents of the broad lig.

fallopian tubes , ovaries , ovarian art, vein and lymphatics . uterine art , vein , lymphatics , round lig of ovary and round lig of uterus.

81

what is the main occupant in the inguinal canal?

spermatic cord in males and round lig in females

82

what is a direct hernia

wall of the abdominal muscle is weak, abdominal contents herniate through a weak spot in the fascia of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal which is formed by the transversalis fascia

83

indirect hernia

occur when abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring , lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels ; this may be caused by failure of embryonic closure of the processus vaginalis

84

what is capacitation

Physiological changes in sperm to give them the ability to penetrate and fertilise an oocyte
Continuing process that occurs during sperm transport through the female reproductive tract
Epithelial interactions between sperm and mucosal surface of the uterine tube
Removal of a glycoprotein coat and seminal plasma proteins around the acrosomal region of the sperm

85

WHere do these hormones come from?
FSH
human chorionic gonadtrophin
oestrogen
progesterone
testosterone

the pituitary

implanting embryo

granulosa cells express aromatase which converts androgen to oestrogens which then get secreted

corpus luteum

thecal cells

86

what layer is shed during menstruation

stratum functionalis

87

Why does the theca interna ned blood vessels

has an endocrine function, steroid hormones need to be transported to BV

88

epitheilium of vagina

non-keratinising stratified squamous epithelium - resists wear and tear

89


Where does vaginal mucus come from

Mainly from glands of the uterine cervix (greater vestibular glands of Bartholin at the entry to the vagina do produce some mucus, but not in significant amounts)

90

Which tissue layer of the uterine wall is the thickest? Why?

Myometrium – to help deliver the child at parturition

91

why does the stratum basalis remain during menstruation

it has an independent blood supply from the straight arteries . and they are the source of new growth in next cycle . bastes

92

what kind of joint in the pubic symphysis

cartilaginous

93

what does the sacral foramina transmit

anterior and posterior branches of the sacral nerves

94

what kind of joint is the sacroiliac joint

Synovial joint

95

what two clinical conditions can affect and older man

prostate cancer
benign prostatic hyperplasia

96

smooth muscle layers of the ductus deferens

inner longitudinal
middle circular
outer longitudinal

97

what are stereocilia

non-motile apical modifications of the cells , closely related to microvilli

98

epithelium of ductus deferens

pseudostratified , columnar with stereocilia

99

what is varicocele

abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform plexus in the scrotum

100

what tissue forms stroma of prostate and what condition is associated wiht it

fibromuscular , benign prostatic hypertrophy

101

The prostatic secretion is produced by the cuboidal/low columnar epithelial cells. clinical condition associated with this is...

prostatitis

102

what is the name of eosinophilic bodies present in the prostate

AMYloid bodies

103

Female: round ligament of the uterus. Where does it begin and end? What are its coverings?

It originates at the uterine horns, where the ovarian tubes enter the uterus and attaches to the labia majora passing through the inguinal canal.

Its coverings are the transversalis fascia.

104


What do the urethral folds become in a) the female and b) the male?

Male – Scrotal raphe, spongy urethra and ventral aspect of the penis
Female - Labia minora

105

What do the genital swellings become in a) the female and b) the male?


Male – Scrotum
Female - Labia majora