Organs, glands, and other structures that are involved in perpetuating the species.
Does not begin ot fully function until puberty
- 11 - 14 in females
- 14 - 15 in males
What are the functions of the reproductive system?
Continuation of the species
Produce gametes in gonads:
- Males - sperm from testes
- Females - ovum from ovary
Care and transport of gametes
Allows transport of sperm to ovum via sexual intercourse
Provides a site for embryo and fetus development
Produces sex hormones (development of secondary sex characteristics.
Encased in a though, white fibrous CT capsule and our found in external pouch of skin called the scrotum.
The normal body temperature is about 37 °C, which is too high for sperm development, so the testes must hang outside the body.
Testis/testes does/do not descend into the scrotum at the latter part of fetal development.
200 - 300 per testis
Cone-shaped areas are formed from the capsule. Each contain interstitial cells and one seminiferous tubule
- Interstitital Cells
- Seminiferous Tubule - performs spermatogenesis
Testosterone-producing cells called Leydig (interstitial) cells
The production or development of mature spermatozoa.
What is the genetic composition of sperm?
Carries 23 chromosomes located in the nucleus (head)
What is the structure of the sperm?
The head has a cap called the acrosome, which contains egg-penetrating chemicals
In the middle of the sperm is the mitochondria that produces energy to run the flagellum
The flagellum is the tail that propels the sperm to the ovum in the fallopian tube.
What is the function of the male genital tract?
- Site of sperm maturation
- Transports sperm to outside of body
- Lies along the posterior border of the testis
- Stores sperm, which mature here for 7 - 21 days
- Have muscular walls that move sperm via peristalsis
- Secretes a small amount of seminal fluid
Also known as semen, consists of:
- Liquid of slightly basic pH that contains fructose, which provides energy for the sperm.
- Sperm - 400,000,000/3.5 mL of Fluid
- Stores most of the sperm for up to several months
- Has muscular walls to push sperm along via peristalsis during ejaculation.
Encloses testicular arteries and veins, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and vas deferens
Coils of intestine or the greater omentum can be forced anteriorly through these areas, into the inguinal canal, sometimes pushing all the way into the scrotum.
Secretes 60% of the seminal fluid
Function to mix the sperm stored in the ampulla with fluids secreted by the seminal vesicles and to transport these substances to the prostate.
Produces 30% of seminal fluid, which is somewhat alkaline and helps raise the pH of the vagina from 3.5 - 4.0 to 6.0 - 6.5.
Ejaculation uses the same tube through which urine exits the body.
Secretes 5% of seminal fluid
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
- Growth of prostate constricts the urethra
- Affects urine flow
- Treatment via medication
The external genital that is composed of 3 cylindrical columns of tissue:
- 2 corpora cavernosa
- 1 corpus spongiosum
- Smaller in diameter than corpora cavernosa
- Contains the urethra.
Sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the human penis
Also called foreskin, the retractable roll of skin covering the end of the penis.
The removal of the foreskin from the human penis
Female reproductive organs in which ova or eggs are produced, as well as secretion of sex hormones, present in humans and other vertebrates as a pair.
What is the function of oogenesis?
Eggs are contained within follicles
- At birth, there are approximately 2,000,000 follicles
- At puberty, there are approximately 400,000
- Only approximately 400 follicles mature and release an egg during a lifetime.
- Occurs after the onset of puberty
- Follicular cells grow and produce fluid inside the follicle
- The fluid inside the follicle causes the follicle to burst and an ovum is released from the ovary.
What is the role of the female genital tract?
Site of egg fertilization and growth of fetus
Also known as uterine tubes and oviducts, are the female structures that transport the ova from the ovary to the uterus each month.
In the presence of sperm and fertilization, the uterine tubes transport the fertilized egg to the uterus for implantation.
Outer part of the uterine tube ending in the fimbriae. It is joined to the ovary by the broad ligament, and captures the ova released by the ovary.
Small, fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tubes, through which eggs move from the ovaries to the uterus.
What is the result of the beating of fimbriae?
Beating motion of the fimbriae and cilia causes the ovum to move toward the fallopian tube
What happens if sperm is in the fallopian tube?
If sperm are present in the fallopian tube, then fertilization may occur.
When zygote (fertilized egg) implants in the wall of the fallopian tube.
Pear-shaped, fist-sized structure where normal site of zygote implantation occurs.
3 main parts
What are the layers of the uterine wall?
Benign tumors that arise in the myometrium
Symptoms - abdonminal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, urinary incontinence.
Treatment - surgery
A surgical operation to remove all or part of the uterus.
Endometrium grows outside the uterus; endometrial tissue continues normal behavior (thickens, sloughs), but has no exit.
Primary symptom - pain, especially during menstruation
Causes - primarily from retrograde menstruation
Treatment - pain medication, hormonal therapy, surgery.
Muscular canal, lined with mucous membrane:
- Extends from uterus to vestibule
- pH is acidic - 3.5 - 4.0
The rounded mass of fatty tissue lying over the joint of the pubic bones, in women typically more prominent and also called the mons veneris.
2 elongated rounded folds of skin that forms the lateral boundaries of the vulva
- Covered with pubic hair
- Analogous with the scrotum
2 thin folds of skin that lie within the labia majora; one on either side of the urinary meatus and vaginal meatus.
Analogous with the penis
Part of the vulva between the labia minora into which the urinary meatus (urethral opening) and the vaginal opening open.