Flashcards in Reproductive system (Gynaecology & STIs) Deck (67):
Summary of the Reproductive System
Infections of preg/puerperium/noenate
What is Intraepithelial neoplasia?
= dysplasia of squamous ep lining of genital tract
Intraepithelial neoplasia is an IN SITU disease. T/F?
What is the common cause of VIN, CIN, CGIN, VaIN, AIN?
Which HPV types are benign and cause genital warts?
HPV 6, 11
which HPV types are high risk and cause 70% Cervical cancers?
HPV 16, 18
HPV expresses early genes at onset of infection:
E6 genes --> inactivates what?
E7 genes inactivate what?
E6 - p53
E7 - RB1
Name of HPV vaccine?
Features of VIN?
HPV-related -- Vulval cancer ass.
Lichen Sclerosus in elderly women is associated with which type of VIN?
Ass. with Vulval cancer
Vulval cancer is most commonly SCC. T/F?
Vulval tumours can be...?
Is Paget's Disease IN SITU disease?
Presents: eczematous/buring patch
Which part of the cervix undergoes columnar ep --> stratified sq ep after menarche?
Which state is the pre-invasive stage of Cervical SCC?
The cervical screening program is done to detect CIN and graded CIN 1-3. For what ages?
If ab --> HPV test, if +ve --> Colposcopy
Risk factors for CIN?
Multiple partners, immunosuppression, young at 1st intercourse
CGIN is a pre-cursor for which cancer?
(Same presentation/treatment as Cervical SCC)
State the treatment for CIN, Cervical SCC/Adenocarcinoma.
Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone
What is endometriosis?
= Ectopic endometrium
Endometriosis would be investigated using laproscopy. What is the treatment?
Endometritis can be acute or chronic. Name 4 common symptoms.
Ab vaginal bleeding/discharge
Treatment of endometritis?
Endometrial polyps = common oestrogen-dependan growths.
It is often symptomatic. What types of bleeding can present though?
Treatment of endometrial polyps?
State risk factors for Leiomyomata (uterine fibroids)?
Fibroids present as menometorrhagia and are investigated by bimanual exam and USS. Whats the treatment?
*tends to regress in menopause
Is oestrogen high or low in endometrial hyperplasia?
High oestrogen (RISK FACTOR)
Endometrial hyperplasia presents as any ab bleeding and is investigated using USS/hysteroscopy. What are the treatment options?
The most common gynae cancer is...?
Typical presentation of Endometrial cancer?
Endometrial cancer is investigated by USS, hysteroscopy & biopsy. What are the treatment options?
What are the 2 types of endometrial cancer?
Which one is more common & is pre-menopausal/E2 dependant?
Type 1: Endometriod*
Type 2: Serous
The name of the follow ovarian disoder is...
2. MENSTRUAL AB
3. POLYCYSTIC OVARIES
Polycystsic Ovary syndrome (PCOS)
The risk factors for PCOS are Obesity and Diabetes. How would you treat it?
Gonadal failure/Hypogonadism can be characteristed by high/low FSH & LH.
Name the 2 catagories of hypogonadism.
1" = Hypergonadotrophic Hypogonadism
2" = Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism
Turner's syndrome, Infection, Surgery, Chemo/RT, Drugs are all examples of what?
1" hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism
2" hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is caused by?
Empty sella syndrome
How is gonadal failure treated?
Ovarian neoplasms are divided into which 3 groups?
1. Epithelial tumours*
2. Germ cell tumours
3. Sex-cord stromal tumours (rare)
Which gynae cancer is the 2nd most common?
FH, Age, PMH breast cancer, Smoking, E2-HRT, HNPCC
Symptoms of ovarian cancer are non-specific. Name some.
Breast anatomy is made of 2 components. T/F?
- Glandular tissue
State common presentations of any breast pathology
1 in 8 women get...?
Most breast pathology
Breast cancer is commonly Ductal or Lobular cancer. What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
Breast screening is for 47-73yrs. Whats the triple assessment?
For investigating breast lumps:
What is a benign proliferation of glandular & conn tissue?
Paget's D of the nipple is aka..?
Ductal carcinoma IN SITU
6-8 weeks post-partum
All antibitoics cross the placenta/enter breast milk. T/F?
Are Penicillins & Cephalosporins safe antibiotics to use in preg?
Which antibiotics are unsafe to use in preg?
Preg women are immunocompromised. Infections often present diff/ more severe.
Which viral infections are important to remember in preg?
Is screening for bacteriuria indicated in preg or not?
If untreated --> UTI --> pyelonephritis
Treatment of UTIs in preg?
25% preg with pret-term labour have what infection?
(inflamm of umbilical cord/placenta/amniotic membranes)
Presentation of choriamnionitis?
Foul-smelling amniotic fluid
C-section, PROM, Vaginal exams, Prolonged labour can all lead to what?
(inflamm of womb)
How does puerperal endometritis present?
Puerperal mastitis often occur ~5 weeks post-delivery in whom?
Treatment of puerperal mastitis?
(S.aureas from cracked skin)
Neonatal Sepsis/Meningitis often has subtle or atypical signs. How would it present?
Blood, Urine, CSF
Jarish-Hexheimer reaction is caused by endotoxins from killed bacteria from antibiotics in what STI?
Which type of breast cancer lines up in a single file?
What is the term for pitted/dippled skin on breast?