Reptile Conservation and Cultural Significance (lecture 5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reptile Conservation and Cultural Significance (lecture 5) Deck (24):
1

Australia is a reptile paradise

-high endemism
-high species diversity

2

driver of diversity

substantial changes in the globe
-animals have to deal with it or become extinct

3

endemism

-number of species unique to a specific area
-does not tell you the rate of diversity (number of species in a particular area)
-bigger land mass has high endemism and high diversity

4

speciation

- a method of how species evolved

5

allopatric

-most common
-population divided by a physical isolation
-changes natural selection
-large genetic changes
-reproductive isolation
-males and females do not have the same cues for mating and reproduction
-no more interbreeding

6

sympatric

-speciation by a mutation
-cause divergence in species

7

centers of diversity

-where on the landscape are there areas that lead to speciation
-often there is hot spots or cold spots

8

classes of factors

-areas with a strong level of extinction
-not all species can live everywhere
(broader tolerance more diversity)
(narrow tolerance less diversity)
-competition
-predation
-disturbance
(major ecological force
all of these happening at one dictates rate of speciation and what can persist at once

9

Kimberly

-mountains that seperate arid a
-generate endemic species

10

Wet tropics

-greater number of niches with great resources and loads of living
-nocturnal skinks (prickly skink) highly endemic to this area
-23% of Australian reptile species
-highest concentration of endemic reptiles in the Wet Tropics of 18 species
-high diversity about 162 species of reptiles live in this region
-24 of these species are found exclusively in the rainforest

11

suitability and habitat for species

-climate resilient area is the border range of Queensland and New South Whales
-good amount of rainfall

12

arid diversity

-highly diverse lizards in the desert
-dont go to Kimberley
-reptiles have different center
-90 species

13

East coast more productive

-higher diversity

14

considerable areas

-reptiles particularly in the desert have high diversity
-center have different level of evolution that lead to different levels of diversity and endemism

15

under huge pressure due to climate

-selection process
-rate and frequency of heat
-reptiles exploited by humans
-no extinction since European colonization
-most endangered is the Western swamp tortoise which needs rainfall to start growth of egg

16

habitat alteration

-most major concern
-habitat loss due to suburbs and farming
-disturbance regimen has increase drastically
-takes 40 yrs. to rebuild after timber
-group of animals behave differently to disturbance
-species diversity usually go down but some do well

17

some glimmers of hope

-thought to be extinct pygmy blue-tongue found in the stomach of a snake at and clearing

-thought to be extinct as a result of pressure on these animals through trampling and CO2 gas from herding

18

possum

-state emblem of Australia
-live in dead trees called stags
-timbering reduce habitat resources

19

lizards response to logging and how to combat it

-don't go extinct but feel the effects

-can use selective logging (20% of timber)
-take out mature trees that are likely to die
-forest coop-clear out a particular patch
-alll achieve balance of timber and maintaining animal habitat

20

cane toads

-used to control cane beetle on sugar cane
-move into western Australia
-big poisonous sacks
-99% of reptiles harbor no resistance to the toxins
-very few competition among other toads
-all animals that eat toads will die off (freshwater crocodiles crash to about 50-60%%)
-animals that survive have difference of choice
-major conservation concern for reptiles

21

competition

-mammalian predators are warm blooded
-higher reproductive rate
-stealing food
-nutritional stress
-small reproduction
-smaller in size
-lag on population dynamics

22

conservation methods

-drop toxic feeding
-reduce competition risk of predators

23

reptiles as resources

-look beyond their looks into what they do
-cultural values

24

cultural values

-indigenous
-reptiles painted on walls
-value to community
-spiritually, food source
-oral tradition (rainbow serpent produce the nation)
-hunting
-big cornerstone to diet particularly for desert people
-fishing
-bush tucker
-sea tucker (sea turtles)
-telling stories
-food
-show level of skilling
-fitness benefit of having more children