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0

stomatitis? common in ? often caused by? or may be 2 to? dx? tx?
what is silver sulphsalizine? which ab's?

common in snakes. or acrodonts. caused - bite wounds infections nd trauma - interactions with transparent surface. - cover up!
2 to immunosuppression - paramyxovirus.
dx - cyto and fungal.
tx - enroflox, ceph. debride GA. topical silver sulphsalizine (analgesia and antifungal)

1

peridontal disease? common inn what? tx? how can it be prevented in snakes?

acrodonts - dragons and chameleons. they dont replace thier teeth like pelurodonts do and the teeth sit on a boney ridge so are well exposed. they get rauma and gingival recession. tx - scale husbandry diet, debride, ab and nsaids. prevent in snakes by covering transparent surfaces - leads to trauma and stomatitis.

2

URT diseases? 2 syndromes in tortoises? cx? syndrome 1? 2?
-mycoplasma agassizzi - which breed? tx?
- herpes - dx? breeds? tx?

runny nose dsyndrome and stomatitis - mouth rot.
cx - conjunctivitis, rhinitis, stomatitis, dyspnoea, stridor, move legs.

a) mycoplasma agassizzi - horsefields. ab enroflox, doxy, f10, eo tube and support. test positive = positive for life.

b) herpes - myco too? PCR! cyto. tongue scrapes. leopard and hermans. tx - oe tube. ab, silver sulphasalizine (TOPICAL) debride.

3

pneumonia? dx in snakes?
extension of?
dx? - xray view
endo for what?
tx?
what is the cause in a chelonian? tx?

extension of stomatitis. TW in snakes. PCR? hard to clear secretions so hang up side down and massage.
xray - horizontal beam. lung biop by endo.
nebulise f10 and enroflox.

chelonian - herpes? extension of urt? myco?
4-6 weeks enroflox and f10. repeat to confirm tx okay. endo, tw and xray. intrapneumonic therpy via pre femoral fossa/hole in carapace.

4

septicaemia? found in? due to? cx?
may lead to? - if extends? (seeds)
prog?

snakes. 2 to immunosuppression eg. aramyxovirus?
poor husbandry?
seeds to spine and may cause OA. reduced flexibility and swells.
culture and haem. anorexia and red ventral scales. poor prognosis. may see in aged lizards too.

5

paramyxovirus? caused by? which species? dx?
acute or chronic?
diff?
PM?
tx?

snakes - xray lungs, ophidian.
acute - low titre. suden death resp and neuro 10 wk incubation.
chronic - high titre. immune suppression? resp regurg and git. may remain healthy for over 10m/o after exposed?
serology - quar. sample before quar and before release .
PM - haemorrhagic pneumonia.
histo - prolif of type 2 cells and eosino.
tx - support, quar

6

IBd? stands for?
seen in what?
type of virus?
cx?
why dont mix boa and python?
dx?
tx? what has a role in trans?

snakes. boa and pythons (corn snakes and vipers too)
eos intracyto inclusion bodies.
retrovirus.
boa = more resistant therefore dont mix with pythons.
cx - neuro regurg and wl
dx - eos intra inclusiion bodies.
live - tonsillar/liver biops.
6m.o quar.
isolate and treat mites. - role in trans. ophionyssus natricus?

7

snake smite? also calle? feed on? cx? 2? cycle? tx? 2 kinds and what to do with vivarium and contents? cx?

see notes.

8

nutritional seconadry hyperparathyroidism? causes? seen in? due to?
history?
cx?
dx?
tx? if low ionised calcium? ca:po4 ratio treat with?

metabolid bone disease. bendy jaw. ?low ca. low vit d.
uv-b and diet?
heat light and diet history??

cx - soft jaw, shell, lack of truncal lift, thinkened plastrocaracial bridge. males - hemipene prolapse.
fractures? tetany?
dx - xray, bones, gout, gi stasis, bloods?
tx - oe tube, uv-b, po4 binders (to do with ca:po4 ratio) chelation.
ca gluconate inj every 6 hours if low ionised ca?

9

pyramidial growth? seen in? due to? tx?

due to high protein feed and low RH. tx - correct husbandry. spray water and diet. seen in chelonians?

10

repro diseases? seen in?
when lizards and snakes are gravid? - leads to?
egg stasis can be due to what?
what do they need to lay eggs?

snakes - lay eggs with no exposure to males? POOS/POES/ ? dx? tx?

lizards and chelonians - hemipene and cloacal collapse? need a male to ovulate.
off food when gravid - due to fill of space. low ca and cond loss high met demand leads to collapse.
egg coelomitis?
egg stasis? - if not enough nest temp RH privacy - egg retained.
need all these environmental factors to lay eggs.

snakes - POOS/POES. pre ovulation ova/egg stasis. they lay eggs without a male -
dx - xray, us, endo bloods.
tx - atenolol, ca gluconate, oxytocin, - if shelled
if not shelled - surgery.

11

explain POOS/POES? in snakes?
dx?
tx?
if shelled/not?

see notes

12

skin trauma/infections? due to?
why will they normally heal quickly?
tx?
why do you need an xray?

what is orphysosporium annamorph? - yelow fungus seen in? dx? tx?how long to treat for and with what?

pet, prey burns etc. 2 infections,

shed regularly - heal well. if no 2 infections

tx - debride and flush and culture and biopsy - do not do 1 closure if infected?
exam under GA. and xrays - incase puncture cavity?
silver based dressings an fluids and ab and nsaids and surgery.

orhysosporium annamorph - yellow fungus snakes. culture and histo and anti fungals systemic and topical AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. for 1m/o. poor prog.

13

dysecdysis? 2 to? what happens when they shed? tx? what predisposes problems??
how do lizards shed differently and what do they eat? what do topical eye lubes treat?

see notes?

14

fatty liver disease? when is ti normal?
cx?
dx?
tx? as?

normal when breeding and hibernate. if excessive show cx
cx - anrexia. leth, green urates, or no cx.
dx - us endo, ct, biopsy.
tx - anabolic steroids, support, carnitine, methionine, thyroid supps.

15

renal disease? due to? leads to?
dx?
tx? what can you use to correct the po4:ca ratio? which enzyme treated to reduce uric acid - therefore excreted as what?

URIC ACID!! may block tubules. fibrosis and nephrosis. leads to gout.
dx - bloods and reversed ca:P leads to high uric acid.
tx - allopurinaol! - reduces uric acid!. endo biop.
protein then excreteed as xathine and hypoxanthine.
negative on xanthine oxidase therefore reduced uric acid.
may also treat with fluids and po4 binders to correct the ratio.

16

how can you put a reptile to sleep? what is the problem? when shoudl you not pith them?
where can you inject?

they tolerate hypoxia for a long time. pentobard iv/intra heart. sedate first if they are lively - high dose ket.
pith via roof of mouth.
rigor mortis may stil have heart beat even if dead.

do not pith if need cns for histo - just do pm fast and remove it. and fix it.

17

self trauma? due to? tx? when can you do a primary closure? if not?
why alwasy xray?

lawnmower? dog fire infections.
tx - debride and flush, closure or not depends on infection. exam under ga plus xrays to rule out forther damage to coelomic cavity or lungs.
dressings plus silver based products. - gram negs and antifungal. plus analgesia and ab's.

18

cloacal organ prolapse? cx?
dx?
tx?

bladder? colon? cloaca? oviduct?
cx - strain, anorexic, leth dep
dx - full exam and bloods and xray - eggs fb/neo.
tx - surgery - replace and purse string suture or amputate or ex lap.

19

aural abscess? seen in? cx? may be 2 to? (vit a) causes?
tx?

ear drum distended? ascending infection from pharynx. may be due to low vit a.
squamous met of lining of the ear - means infection can colonise?
tx - surgery - incise ear at 3 and 9 o clock. remove abscess and flush and abs. (c+s)

20

ex ceoleotomy? for what?
when incise a lizard why do you need to go away from midline? avoid what?
what is the holding layer?
sutures?

on a snake? - stomach, heart, lungs, liver, r gonad and kidney?, left?
where should you incise?
where should you have the knot of skin sutures? type of sutures?

lizard - large ventral abdo vein - avoid. paramedian incision.
cut directed dorsally - dont damage mm and bluntly dissect mm

skin is holding layer and need horizontal matress or staples. pds.

snake - 50%is stomach
22-33% - heart
35-45% lungs
45-55%liver
60-70 - r gonad
65-75 r kidney
70-80 left gonad
75-85 left kidney.
incise between scales. and bluntly dissect mm
horizontal matress and knot to upper edge - redue contamination

21

plastronotomy? chelonians.
how cut through?
what limits access?
why bevelled edges?
what can you do to keep the flap alive?
how to repair? if infected dont use?

see notes. bevelled - to stop flap falling in allow bone to bone contact to heal. flap usually dies - keep st attach, put on damp swab etc.
pack gell and fibreglass/screws.