Flashcards in Reptile Test Deck (68):
What are the 2 most common Orders seen in clinic? Give an example of each
1. Chelonia - turtles/tortoise
2. Squamata - snakes/lizards
Reptiles have much slower _______ compared to mammals of equivalent size
Reptiles are ______ which means they need an external heat source to thermoregulate
What is Heliothermy?
Obtaining radiant heat for the body by basking in the sun
What is Thigmothermy?
Obtaining heat for the body by conduction with hot surfaces
What is an advantage that snakes have with the ability to coil themselves?
Most reptiles dissipate heat via:
Generally, what is the range of normal temperature for reptiles?
20-38 degrees C
What are 2 reasons why UV light is important for reptiles?
Behaviour and Vitamin D3 metabolism
UVA affects behaviour and helps reptiles trigger ________
UVB is necessary for reptilian ______ metabolism
Reptile skin is _______, therefore it is not slimey
What is the term for the normal shedding process in the snake?
What is the term for abnormal shedding in the snake?
Why do reptiles have multiple layers of keratin and a lipid layer in their skin?
To prevent water loss
What are the single, ventral scales called on a snake?
Scales caudal to the vent are called:
Why do snakes have kinetic skulls?
Allows for movement between different skull areas, able to ingest large prey or increase mouth gape
How many pre-sacral vertebrae do snakes have?
Reptile vertebrae are classified into what 3 types?
Pre-sacral, sacral, caudal
Chelonian shells are comprised of ________ which are covered by horny scutes which are equivalent to reptillian scales
Turtles have a _____ chambered heart
True or false: Turtles can shunt blood away from the pulmonary circulation during times of oxygen depletion
Why should a turtle's very low PCV result be carefully evaluated?
Lymphdilution contaminates blood samples by being intimately associated with the blood. This dilution mainly effects the PCV and leukogram
What is the term for the self-cleaning mechanism of reptile's bronchi?
Reptiles lack a diaphragm, but instead have a:
What are the components of Triphasic breathing?
Inspiration, Expiration, Rest
True or false: When a Chelonian has retracted into their shell, they cannot actively take a respiration
Why can't snakes actively breathe and move at the same time?
They use the same muscles for respiration as they do for locomotion
_______ is the main bile pigment
True or false: Liver is small and short in snakes
False - large and elongated
What part of the renal system to reptiles lack, making it harder for them to concentrate urine?
Loop of Henle
What is the name of the painful condition in which reptiles have uric acid circulating systemically and depositing into organs and joints?
How can reptiles aid in water loss and rehydrate salt glands?
Retro pulsing freshwater into the cloaca (like a bidet lol)
What 2 purposes do the Spurs of snakes serve?
Courtship and combat between males
What is reptilian autotomy?
"Self amputation" like in lizard species who can detach their tails as a defense mechanism
What are 4 methods we can use to distinguish between male and female turtles?
1. Counting number of subcaudal scales; males have more
2. Measuring tail base; males are broader
3. Probing; probe extends 6-10 scales in males and 2-3 in females
4. Everting hemipenis; gently squeeze tail
True or false: Female snakes can store sperm and use later
True but what the fuck?
Snakes can be oviparous or ________
________ is the most developed sense in most reptiles
What are the 2 main mistakes made with Reptiles as pets and therefore most reason they're seen in clinic?
Inadequate husbandry or inadequate nutrition
What are 5 key components to an appropriately kept reptile environment in captivity?
Size, heat, humidity, lighting and water quality
Each reptile has a POTZ (____________) just for them
Preferrd Optimal Temperature Zone
What are the 4 biotopes of reptiles?
Tropical, desert, temperate, aquatic
Preferred Optimal Temperature Zones should have a cool area between _____ degrees and a hot area between _____ degrees for MOST species
Cool: 20-25 degrees C
Hot: 35-40 degrees C
What is meant by the term poilikothermic?
Internal temperature always varies considerably
What is the term for reptiles that gain heat via the sun?
What is the term for reptiles that gain heat via warmed rocks?
Radiant heat sources include:
Heat lamps and the sun
Conductive heat sources include:
Warming rocks, heat pads
True or false: Reptiles have sensitive skin to thermal burns and therefore are sensitive to the heat elements in their enclosure
THIS SHIT IS TRUE
Humidity levels need to be monitored by a _______ device
What are some ways we can increase humidity levels in their enclosure?
Humidifiers, misting, drip system, shallow pools, water in bottom of tall enclosure
Feeding reptiles on _____ substrate can cause GI impaction
Tortoises should not have _____ substrate as they often ingest foreign objects bc they are dumb
What is a bioactive substrate composed of?
Thick mix of potting soil, peat moss, mlches, coconut fibres and sand
What are the 3 water types of reptiles species?
1. Fresh water (not tap water)
2. Brackish (higher salinity, higher pH)
3. Salt water (highest pH)
True or false: A fracture in a reptile is an immediate emergency
True or false: Skin disease, trauma and dyspnea are some of the most common presenting complaints amongst reptiles
How to check if a Tortoise is alive using a Doppler?
Place between the head/neck and forelimb and listen for 2 minutes
True or false: You can look for a beating scale in the cranial 1/3 of the snakes body to check if the snake is alive
True - or place the doppler here
In an emergency, always place a reptile in a ______ if possible
If seizing, administer _____ 1mg/kg IM
Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a turtle?
Jugular with skin sutures
Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a large lizard?
Ventral coccygeal vein
Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a small lizard?
Intraosseous is better than IV, and can be placed in the distal femur
What is the best type of ET tube for most reptiles?