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Flashcards in Reptile Test Deck (68):
1

What are the 2 most common Orders seen in clinic? Give an example of each

1. Chelonia - turtles/tortoise
2. Squamata - snakes/lizards

2

Reptiles have much slower _______ compared to mammals of equivalent size

metabolism

3

Reptiles are ______ which means they need an external heat source to thermoregulate

Ectothermic

4

What is Heliothermy?

Obtaining radiant heat for the body by basking in the sun

5

What is Thigmothermy?

Obtaining heat for the body by conduction with hot surfaces

6

What is an advantage that snakes have with the ability to coil themselves?

heat conservation

7

Most reptiles dissipate heat via:

Gular fluttering

8

Generally, what is the range of normal temperature for reptiles?

20-38 degrees C

9

What are 2 reasons why UV light is important for reptiles?

Behaviour and Vitamin D3 metabolism

10

UVA affects behaviour and helps reptiles trigger ________

reproduction

11

UVB is necessary for reptilian ______ metabolism

Calcium

12

Reptile skin is _______, therefore it is not slimey

Aglandular

13

What is the term for the normal shedding process in the snake?

Ecdysis

14

What is the term for abnormal shedding in the snake?

Dysecdysis

15

Why do reptiles have multiple layers of keratin and a lipid layer in their skin?

To prevent water loss

16

What are the single, ventral scales called on a snake?

Gastropeges

17

Scales caudal to the vent are called:

Subcaudal scales

18

Why do snakes have kinetic skulls?

Allows for movement between different skull areas, able to ingest large prey or increase mouth gape

19

How many pre-sacral vertebrae do snakes have?

200-400

20

Reptile vertebrae are classified into what 3 types?

Pre-sacral, sacral, caudal

21

Chelonian shells are comprised of ________ which are covered by horny scutes which are equivalent to reptillian scales

Osteoderms

22

Turtles have a _____ chambered heart

3

23

True or false: Turtles can shunt blood away from the pulmonary circulation during times of oxygen depletion

True

24

Why should a turtle's very low PCV result be carefully evaluated?

Lymphdilution contaminates blood samples by being intimately associated with the blood. This dilution mainly effects the PCV and leukogram

25

What is the term for the self-cleaning mechanism of reptile's bronchi?

Mucocilliary apparatus

26

Reptiles lack a diaphragm, but instead have a:

Coelom

27

What are the components of Triphasic breathing?

Inspiration, Expiration, Rest

28

True or false: When a Chelonian has retracted into their shell, they cannot actively take a respiration

True

29

Why can't snakes actively breathe and move at the same time?

They use the same muscles for respiration as they do for locomotion

30

_______ is the main bile pigment

Biliverdin

31

True or false: Liver is small and short in snakes

False - large and elongated

32

What part of the renal system to reptiles lack, making it harder for them to concentrate urine?

Loop of Henle

33

What is the name of the painful condition in which reptiles have uric acid circulating systemically and depositing into organs and joints?

Gout

34

How can reptiles aid in water loss and rehydrate salt glands?

Retro pulsing freshwater into the cloaca (like a bidet lol)

35

What 2 purposes do the Spurs of snakes serve?

Courtship and combat between males

36

What is reptilian autotomy?

"Self amputation" like in lizard species who can detach their tails as a defense mechanism

37

What are 4 methods we can use to distinguish between male and female turtles?

1. Counting number of subcaudal scales; males have more
2. Measuring tail base; males are broader
3. Probing; probe extends 6-10 scales in males and 2-3 in females
4. Everting hemipenis; gently squeeze tail

38

True or false: Female snakes can store sperm and use later

True but what the fuck?

39

Snakes can be oviparous or ________

viviparous

40

________ is the most developed sense in most reptiles

Smell

41

What are the 2 main mistakes made with Reptiles as pets and therefore most reason they're seen in clinic?

Inadequate husbandry or inadequate nutrition

42

What are 5 key components to an appropriately kept reptile environment in captivity?

Size, heat, humidity, lighting and water quality

43

Each reptile has a POTZ (____________) just for them

Preferrd Optimal Temperature Zone

44

What are the 4 biotopes of reptiles?

Tropical, desert, temperate, aquatic

45

Preferred Optimal Temperature Zones should have a cool area between _____ degrees and a hot area between _____ degrees for MOST species

Cool: 20-25 degrees C
Hot: 35-40 degrees C

46

What is meant by the term poilikothermic?

Internal temperature always varies considerably

47

What is the term for reptiles that gain heat via the sun?

Heliothermic

48

What is the term for reptiles that gain heat via warmed rocks?

Thigmothermic

49

Radiant heat sources include:

Heat lamps and the sun

50

Conductive heat sources include:

Warming rocks, heat pads

51

True or false: Reptiles have sensitive skin to thermal burns and therefore are sensitive to the heat elements in their enclosure

THIS SHIT IS TRUE

52

Humidity levels need to be monitored by a _______ device

Hygrometer

53

What are some ways we can increase humidity levels in their enclosure?

Humidifiers, misting, drip system, shallow pools, water in bottom of tall enclosure

54

Feeding reptiles on _____ substrate can cause GI impaction

Sand

55

Tortoises should not have _____ substrate as they often ingest foreign objects bc they are dumb

Pebbles

56

What is a bioactive substrate composed of?

Thick mix of potting soil, peat moss, mlches, coconut fibres and sand

57

What are the 3 water types of reptiles species?

1. Fresh water (not tap water)
2. Brackish (higher salinity, higher pH)
3. Salt water (highest pH)

58

True or false: A fracture in a reptile is an immediate emergency

True

59

True or false: Skin disease, trauma and dyspnea are some of the most common presenting complaints amongst reptiles

Truuuue

60

How to check if a Tortoise is alive using a Doppler?

Place between the head/neck and forelimb and listen for 2 minutes

61

True or false: You can look for a beating scale in the cranial 1/3 of the snakes body to check if the snake is alive

True - or place the doppler here

62

In an emergency, always place a reptile in a ______ if possible

Warm incubator

63

If seizing, administer _____ 1mg/kg IM

Midazolam

64

Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a turtle?

Jugular with skin sutures

65

Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a large lizard?

Ventral coccygeal vein

66

Where is the best place for an IV catheter in a small lizard?

Intraosseous is better than IV, and can be placed in the distal femur

67

What is the best type of ET tube for most reptiles?

Short, uncuffed

68

Why is it so easy to intubate most reptiles?

No epiglottis