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Flashcards in Research Deck (37):
1

confounding variable

varies systematically with the IV

2

External validity

degree to which research can be generalised to other people (population validity) setting (ecological validity) time (historical validity)

3

Extraneous variables

don't vary systematically with IV but have an effect on the DV

4

Internal validity

observed effect due to experimental manipulation

5

Mundane realism

how a study mirrors the real world

6

Validity

observed effect genuine?

7

Counterbalancing

technique to overcome order effects with repeated measures design

8

Order effect

in repeated measures design
order which conditions are carried out has effect on DV

9

field experiment

controlled experiment conducted outside the lab.
ppts usually unaware they're participating.
hard to control extraneous variables - low internal validity.
Greater mundane realism - high external validity

10

Lab experiments

carried out in controlled setting.
high internal validity.
low ecological validity - ppts aware being studied.

11

Natural experiment

unethical to manipulate IV.
Measure effect naturally varying IV has on DV.
No causal relationships made.

12

Quasi experiment

IV naturally occurring - not made to very by anyone.
Measure DV - lab?
No causal relationships.

13

Demand characteristic

ppt unconsciously aware of aims

14

Investigator effects

anything investigator does that has effect on ppt performance

15

Stratified sampling

identify subgroups according to their frequency in the population

16

presumptive consent

ask group similar to ppts is agree to take part.
assume ppts would agree.
used if lack informed consent

17

Controlled observation

behaviour observed under controlled conditions

18

Covert observations

Observing people without them knowing

19

Naturalistic observation

observing behaviour in everyday setting which has not been manipulated.

20

non-participant observation

observer separate from participants.
not involved in study.

21

Overt observation

participants aware being studied

22

Participant observation

observer taking part in activity being observed

23

event sampling

observational technique.
count number of times behaviour occurs.

24

Structured observations

systems used to organise observations - behavioural categories

25

Time sampling

record behaviours in a certain time frame

26

Social desirability bias

answer questions that presents them in a better light

27

Closed questions

predetermined range of answers.
ppt selects one.
quantitative data.

28

Open questions

pots provide own answers
qualitative data

29

co-variable

two measured variables in correlation analysis

30

Continuous variable

give value in a certain range (scale 1 - 10)

31

Correlation coefficient

between -1 and +1
how closely co-variables are associated

32

Intervening variable

variable that comes between two other variables and explain the association between them

33

Content analysis

observational study where behaviour is observed indirectly

34

Negative skewed distribution

scores bunched towards right.
mean affected by extreme scored to the left.

35

Positive skewed distribution

scores bunched towards left.
mean affected by extreme scores to right.

36

One tailed test

directional

37

Two tailed test

non-directional