RESEARCH EXAM 2 VOCAB ONLY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in RESEARCH EXAM 2 VOCAB ONLY Deck (125):
1

o Protection of participants’ confidentiality such that even the researcher cannot link individuals with the data they provided

ANONYMITY

2

o The affirmative agreement of member of a vulnerable group (children) to participate in a study

assent

3

o Provided a model for many guidelines adopted by disciplinary organizations in the United States

belmont report

4

o An ethical principle that seeks to maximize benefits for study participants, and prevent harm

beneficence

5

o Allows researchers to refuse to disclose information on study participants in any civil, criminal, administrative, or legislative proceeding

ϖ Certificate of Confidentiality

6

o The fundamental ethical principles established by a discipline or institution to guide researchers’ conduct in research with human (or animal) study participants

code of ethics

7

o Document signed by participants that includes information about the study purpose, specific expectations regarding participation, the voluntary nature of participation, and potential costs and benefits

consent form

8

o Is a pledge that any information participants provide will not be publicly reported in a manner that identifies them and will not be made accessible to others

confidentiality

9

o Sessions following data collection so that participants can ask questions or air complaints

debriefing

10

o A situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements of a study

ethical dilemma

11

o Means that the researcher has fully described the study, the persons right to refuse participation, and possible risk and benefits

full disclosure

12

o The return of a completed questionnaire reflects the person’s voluntary consent to participate

implied consent

13

o Means that participants have adequate information about the study, comprehend the information, and have the power of free choice, enabling them to consent to or decline participation voluntarily

informed consent

14

o In the United States, a group of people affiliated with an institution who convene to review proposed and ongoing studies with respect to ethical considerations

institutional review board (IRB)

15

o Is a risk expected to be no greater than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during routine tests or procedures

minimal risk

16

o Consent is continuously renegotiated – QUALITATIVE

process consent

17

o Is fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, conducting, or reviewing research, or in reporting results

research misconduct

18

o Designed to evaluate whether the benefits of participating in a study are in line with the cost, be they financial, physical, emotional, or social

risk/benefit assessment

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o Generous monetary incentive

stipend

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o Special groups of people whose rights in studies need special protection because of their inability to provide meaningful informed consent or because their circumstances place them at higher than average risk of adverse effects (children, unconscious)

vulnerable population

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o The framework in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model

conceptual framework

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o A schematic representation of a theory or conceptual model that graphically represents key concepts and linkages among them

conceptual map

23

o Interrelated concepts or abstractions assembled together in a rational scheme by virtue of their relevance to a common theme – sometimes called conceptual framework

conceptual model

24

o A broad characterization that thoroughly accounts for a phenomenon

descriptive theory

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o The conceptual underpinnings of a study (theoretical framework in a theory based study) or (conceptual framework in studies based on a specific conceptual model

framework

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o A theory that focuses on a limited piece of reality or human experience, involving a selected number of concepts (theory of stress)

middle-range theory

27

o A symbolic representation of concepts or variables and interrelationships among them

model

28

o Or conceptual maps visually represent relationships among phenomena and are used in both QUALITATIVE and QUANTITATIVE

schematic model

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o A framework where the study based on a theory

theoretical framework

30

o An abstract generalization that presents a systemic explanation about relationships among phenomena

theory

31

is what would happen to people if they were exposed to a causal influence & were simultaneously not exposed to it

counterfactual

32

treatment

intervention

33

involves observation of the outcome (mood) at two points in time: before & after the intervention.

pretest-posttest design

34

refers to a group of participants whose performance on an outcome variable is used to evaluate the performance of the experimental group

control group

35

the group getting the intervention

experimental group

36

the most basic experimental design involves randomizing people to different groups and then measuring the outcome. this design is sometimes called:

posttest-only design

37

pretest data AKA

baseline data

38

involves exposing people to more than one treatment.

crossover design

39

pseudointervention presumed to have no therapeutic value, which is also called an attention control condition

placebo

40

called trials without randomization in the medical literature.

quasi-experiments

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quasi-experiements lack

randomization

42

a frequently used quasi-experimental design which involvs comparing two or more groups of people before & after implementing an intervention.

non equivalent control group pretest-posttest design

43

involves collecting data over an extended period of time, and introducing the treatment during that period

time-series design

44

when researchers do not intervene by controlling the independent variable, the study is called?

non-experimental

45

non experimental study AKA

observational

46

when researchers study the effect of a cause they cannot manipulate, they design ____ ____.

correlational studies.

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examine RELATIONSHIPS between variables

correlational studies.

48

is an interrelationship or association between two variables, that is, a tendency for variation in one variable to be related to variation in another

correlation

49

observational studies with a cohort design start with what and end with what?

presumed cause & presumed effect

50

cohort aka

prospective design

51

an effect (outcome) observed in the present is linked to a potential cause occurring in the past.

retrospective correlational studies

52

used in retrospective correlational studies.

CASES with certain conditions, such as lung cancer, are compared to CONTROLS without

case-control design

53

a second broad class of non experimental studies is?

descriptive research

54

the purpose is to describe and document aspects of a situation.

descriptive research

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researchers seek to describe relationships among variables, without attemptingt to infer causal connections

descriptive CORRELATIONAL

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disadvantage of correlational studies.

aka selection bias

self-selection

57

data are collected at one point in time or multiple time in a short time period, such as 1 and 2 hours postoperatively.

cross-sectional designs

58

involve collecting data multiple times over an extended period.

longitudinal designs

59

in which only people who are similar with respect to confounding variables are included in the study.

homogeneity

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which involves consciously forming comparable groups

matching

61

is the most effective method of controlling participants' characteristics

randomization

62

a criterion for establishing causality is showing that there is a relationship between the independent and dependent variable.

statistical conclusion validity

63

refers to the capacity to detect true relationships

statistical power

64

is the extent to which it can be inferred that the independent variable is truly causing the outcome

internal validity

65

with quasi-experiements & correlational studies, there are competing explanations, which are sometimes called?

threats to internal validity

66

reflects biases stemming from preexisting differences between groups.

selection threat

67

is the occurrence of events concurrent with the independent variable that can affect the outcome.

history threat

68

arises from processes occurring as a result of time rather than the independent variable

maturation threat

69

is the threat that arises from attrition in groups being compared

mortality

70

is the threat that arises from attrition in groups being compared

mortality

71

concerns inferences about whether relationships found for study participants might hold true for different people, conditions, and settings.

external validity

72

involves inferences from the particulars of the study to the higher-order constructs they are intended to represent.

construct validity

73

is the entire group of interest

population

74

is the entire population in which a researcher is interested

target population

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is the portion of the target population that is accessible to the researcher

accessible population

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involves selecting a portion of the population to represent the population

sampling

77

is a subset of population elements

sample

78

is one whose characteristics closely approximate those of the population

representative sample

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is the systematic overrepresentation or underrepresentation of some segment of the population in terms of key characteristics

sampling bias

80

populations consist of subpopulations or ____.

strata

81

in this sampling method they select elements by nonrandom methods in which every element usually does not have a chance to be included.

nonprobability sampling

82

entails selecting the most conveniently available people as participants.

convenience sampling

83

in _______ ________ researchers identify population strata and figure out how many people are needed from each stratum.

quota sampling

84

is a non probability sampling method that involves recruiting all people from an accessible population over a specific time interval, or for a specific ample size

consecutive sampling

85

based on the belief that researchers' knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample members

purposive sampling

86

involves random selection of elements from a population.

probability sampling

87

is the most basic probability sampling.

researchers establish a sampling frame, thee technical name for the list of population elements.

simple random sampling

88

the goal is the enhance representativeness.

stratified random sampling

89

involves the selection of every kth case from a list, such as every 10th person on a patient list.

systematic sampling

90

the number of study participants

sample size

91

researchers can estimate how large their samples should be for testing their research hypothesis through _____ ____.

power analysis

92

are participants responses to questions posed by the researcher

self-report

93

is a device that assigns a numeric score to people along a continuum, like a scale for measuring weight

scale

94

consists of several declarative statements that express a viewpoint on a topic

Likert scale

95

examples of response set biases:

social desirability response set bias

extreme response set bias

acquiescence response set bias

96

a tendency to misrepresent attitudes or traits by giving answers that are consistent with prevailing social views

social desirability response set bias

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a tendency to consistently express extreme attitudes or feelings, leading to distortions because extreme responses may be unrelated to the trait being measured

extreme response set bias

98

a tendency to agree with statements regardless of heir content by some people. (YEA-SAYERS)

Acquiescence response set bias

99

researchers don't always tell people they are being observed, because awareness of being observed may cause people to behave atypically.

concealment

100

four major levels of measurement

nominal measurement
ordinal
interval
ratio

101

the lowest level, involved using numbers simply to categorize attributes.

nominal measurements

102

ex of nominal measurements

gender & blood type

103

ranks people based on relative standing on an attribute.

ordinal measurement

104

ex of ordinal measurements

ADLs

105

occurs when researchers can rank people on an attribute and specify the distance between them.

interval measurement

106

ex of interval measurement

IQ test

107

the highest level. have a meaningful ZERO and thus provide info about the absolute magnitude of the attribute.

ratio measurement

108

ex of ratio measurement

weight

109

the difference between true & obtained scores is the result of distorting factors

error of measurement

110

the consistency with which an instrument measures the attribute.

reliability

111

the degree to which similar results are obtained on separate occasions

stability

112

stability is assessed through the?

test-retest reliability

113

a numeric index that quantifies an instrument's reliability, to assess objectively how small the differences are

reliability coefficient

114

this approach is the best way to assess an important source of measurement error in scales, the sampling of items.

internally consistent

115

how is internal consistency evaluated?

coefficient alpha (cronbach's alpha)

116

normal range for chronbach's alpha

.00- +1.00

117

procedure which involves having two or more observers or coders make independent observations.

interrater (interobserver reliability)

118

the degree to which it measures what is supposed to measure

validity

119

concerns the degree to which an instrument has an appropriate sample of items for the construct being measured

content validity

120

researchers can calculate a ___ ____ ____ (CVI) that indicates the extent of expert agreement

content validity index

121

we suggest a CVI value of ____

.90

122

researchers examine the relationship between scores on an instrument and an external criterion.

criterion related validity

123

computed by using a mathematic formula that correlates the two scores

validity coefficient

124

is the ability of a measure to correctly identify a "case," that is, to correctly screen in or diagnose a condition

sensitivity

125

is the measures ability to correctly identify noncases, that is, to screen out those without the condition

specificity