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Flashcards in Research Methods Deck (16):
1

Experimental methods

Involves the manipulation of an independent variable to measure the effect on the dependent variable. Experiments may be lab, field, natural or quasi.

2

Aim

A general statement of what the researcher intends to investigate; the purpose of the study.

3

Hypothesis

A clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigate. Stated at the start of any study.

4

Directional hypothesis

States the direction of the difference or relationship.

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Non-directional hypothesis

Does not state the direction

6

Variables

Amy thing that can vary or charge within an investigation. Variables are generally used in experiments to determine if changes in one thing result in changes to another.

7

Independent variable

Some aspect of the experimental situation that is manipulated by the researcher- or changes naturally - so the effect on the DV can be measured.

8

Dependent variable

The variable that is measured by the researcher. Any effect on the DV should be caused by the change in the IV.

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Operationalisation

Clearly defining variables in terms of how they can be measured

10

Extraneous variable

Any variable, other than the IV, that may have an effect on the dependent variable if it is not controlled.

11

Confounding variable

Any variable, other than the IV, that may have affected the DV so we cannot be sure of the true source of changes to the DV.

12

Demand characteristics

Any cue from the researcher or from the research situation that may be interpreted by participants as revealing the purpose of the investigation resulting in a change in behaviour.

13

Investigator effects

Any effect of the investigators behaviour on the research outcome. This may include everything from the design of the study to the selection of it.

14

Randomisation

The use of chance in order to control for the effects of his when designing materials and deciding the order of conditions

15

Standardisation

Using exactly the same formalised procedures and instructions for all participants in a research study

16

Ethical issues

These arise when a conflict exists between the rights of participants in studies and the goals of research to produce authentic and valid data