Flashcards in Research methods Deck (24):
what are labratory experiments?
an experiment carried out in a control environment where the independent variable is manipulated and the extraneous variables are controlled
what are the strengths of labratory experiments?
high level of control of extraneous variables
high degree of replicability
causes and effect relationships can be uncovered
what are some limitations of labratory experiments?
reduced ecological validity
increased risk of investgator effects and demand characteristics
participants are often required to behave in artificial ways
what are field experiments?
an experiment that takes place outside a labratory environment
what are the strengths of field experiments?
reduction in demand characteristics
higher levels of ecological validity than a true/labratory experiment
what are limitations with field experiments?
reduced control over extraneous variables
more time consuming
what is a natural experiment?
an experiment where naturally occuring changes in independent variables are observed
what are quasi-experiments?
An experiment where participants cannot be randomly assigned to experimental and control groups
what are some benefits of natural and quasi experiments?
high level of ecological validity
useful where it would be impractical or impossible to manipulate variables
what is the limitation of using natural and quasi experiments?
it is not always possible to identfy cause and effect relationships
what is independent groups design?
Experimental design in which each of them participants take part in only one of the conditions
what are the strengths of using independent groups design?
No order effects
Both conditions can be tested simultaneously - saves time and effort
Potential investgator effects and demand characteristics
what are the limitations of independent groups design?
Participant variables may affect the result
Twice as many participants needed
what is repeated measure design?
An experiment where each participant taes part in all conditions of the experiment
what are some strengths of repeated measures design?
It uses less participants which saves time, effort and money
Variables within the participants are not a concern
what are the two limitations of using repeated measures design?
The design of the experiment can be complex
The cost can be high
what is matched pairs design?
An experiment where participants in each condition are matched according to their variables
what is a strength of matched pairs design?
There is a good control of variables within the participants
what is a limitation of matched pairs design which may make the design difficult to do?
It is difficult to match the pairs
what is controlled observation?
An observation that takes place in a highly controlled environment ie. lab
what is naturalistic observation?
An observation that takes place in a natural environment without any control over variables
what is covert observation?
Observation that takes p;ace with the full knowledge and awareness of the participants
what is participant observation?
Where data is gathered by the psychologists while being part of the observed group or situation