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Flashcards in Research methods Deck (24):

what are labratory experiments?

an experiment carried out in a control environment where the independent variable is manipulated and the extraneous variables are controlled


what are the strengths of labratory experiments?

high level of control of extraneous variables
high degree of replicability
causes and effect relationships can be uncovered


what are some limitations of labratory experiments?

reduced ecological validity
increased risk of investgator effects and demand characteristics
participants are often required to behave in artificial ways


what are field experiments?

an experiment that takes place outside a labratory environment


what are the strengths of field experiments?

reduction in demand characteristics
higher levels of ecological validity than a true/labratory experiment


what are limitations with field experiments?

reduced control over extraneous variables
more time consuming
ethical issues


what is a natural experiment?

an experiment where naturally occuring changes in independent variables are observed


what are quasi-experiments?

An experiment where participants cannot be randomly assigned to experimental and control groups


what are some benefits of natural and quasi experiments?

high level of ecological validity
useful where it would be impractical or impossible to manipulate variables


what is the limitation of using natural and quasi experiments?

it is not always possible to identfy cause and effect relationships


what is independent groups design?

Experimental design in which each of them participants take part in only one of the conditions


what are the strengths of using independent groups design?

No order effects
Both conditions can be tested simultaneously - saves time and effort
Potential investgator effects and demand characteristics


what are the limitations of independent groups design?

Participant variables may affect the result
Twice as many participants needed


what is repeated measure design?

An experiment where each participant taes part in all conditions of the experiment


what are some strengths of repeated measures design?

It uses less participants which saves time, effort and money
Variables within the participants are not a concern


what are the two limitations of using repeated measures design?

The design of the experiment can be complex
The cost can be high


what is matched pairs design?

An experiment where participants in each condition are matched according to their variables


what is a strength of matched pairs design?

There is a good control of variables within the participants


what is a limitation of matched pairs design which may make the design difficult to do?

It is difficult to match the pairs


what is controlled observation?

An observation that takes place in a highly controlled environment ie. lab


what is naturalistic observation?

An observation that takes place in a natural environment without any control over variables


what is covert observation?

Observation that takes p;ace with the full knowledge and awareness of the participants


what is participant observation?

Where data is gathered by the psychologists while being part of the observed group or situation


what is non participant observation?

Where data is gathered "from a distance" without the psychologist being involved in the observed group