Resp failure, breathing sounds, common conditions Flashcards Preview

3 - Respiratory > Resp failure, breathing sounds, common conditions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Resp failure, breathing sounds, common conditions Deck (10):
1

What is bronchial breathing?

Consolidated alveoli (which being solid, are excellent at conducting sounds) - which conduct breath sounds from larger airways.

2

List two conditions which will cause a mediastinal displacement towards the affected side and explain why.

Localised fibrosis – fibrous tissue contracts.

Lung collapse from central airway obstruction
- Blockage of air entering distal airways. Air already present gets absorbed and then alveoli contract down, causing collapse of the alveoli

3

Give a condition which will cause a mediastinal displacement away from the affected side and explain why.

Large effusion
Increased pressure in pleural cavity due to the large effusion pushing entire mediastinum to the opposite side

4

Outline the symptoms of acute bronchitis

Acute Bronchitis is an acute viral or bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
- Usually begins 3-4 days after a URTI
- Cough may initially be dry, then productive
- Can have SOB and wheeze
- Symptoms do not vary during the day
- Mild fever may be present. (High fever suggests pneumonia)
- Central chest discomfort on coughing may be present
- No past history of recurrent similar episodes

5

Outline symptoms of asthma

Not an infection, though episodes may be triggered by respiratory tract infection
- No preceding URTI
- Dry cough, tenacious, scanty white sputum
- Chest tightness
- Breathlessness and wheeze
- Symptoms show variability
- Past history of similar episodes, with trigger factors
- History of atopy
- Family history of asthma/atopy

6

What causes narrowing of large airways?

Compression (eg by Lymph nodes outside airways)
Narrowing of lumen by tumour
Inhaled foreign bodies

7

What causes narrowing of the small airways?

Bronchoconstriction,
Mucus in lumen
Mucosal oedema
Bronchial wall thickening due to hypertrophy of submucosal glands
Loss of radial traction (eg emphysema)

8

What is the difference between vesicular and bronchial sounds?

Vesicular sounds – these are the normal breath sounds
- Quality suggestive of ‘rustling leaves’
- heard on inspiration and 1st part of expiration with no gap between the inspiratory & expiratory components.

Bronchial breathing – Characteristic blowing sound
- present in both inspiration and expiration with gap between the inspiratory & expiratory components.
- Causes: consolidation, localised fibrosis, pleural effusion

9

Give two main effects of chronic respiratory failure

1. CO2 retention
- CSF acidic corrected by choroid plexus
- Initial acidosis corrected by the kidney
- Reduction of respiratory drive
- Persisting hypoxia

2. Right Heart Failure (Cor pulmonale)
- Effect of hypoxia on pulmonary arteries causes Pulmonary hypertension
- Chronic respiratory failure is severely disabling

10

What is the management of respiratory failure? (4)

- Oxygen therapy
- Removal of secretions
- Assisted ventilation
- Treat acute exacerbations