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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (38):
1

Air-conducting system goes from what macroscopic anatomical features to where?

Nasal cavity to bronchioles (terminal bronchiole is last conducting, respiratory bronchiole is first respiratory part)

2

branching system overall diameter goes up or down as you proceed toward the alveoli?

overall diameter goes up

3

what are the four components of the respiratory tract?

respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveoli

4

where do you find the mesothelium? what is a common disease of the area called?

its the visceral layer of the lung's tissue; has an elastic element in the subepithelial layer;
mesothelioma

5

what specialized function do the conchae/turbinates perform?

stirring of the air/warming of the air; stirring causes precipitation of particulates; warming is achieved via a network of capillaries that runs perpendicular to the flow of air

6

epithelium in nose is...?

starts as continuation of the external skin - stratified squamous epithelium
then transforms into pseudostratified columnar epithelium (of the respiratory tract)

7

what are the three types of cells in the olfactory sensing system?

sustentacular cells
olfactory bulb cells (with cilia)
basal cells

8

what do the sustentacular cells do?

provide trophic and metabolic support for the olfactory bulb cells - just like glial cells

9

what do olfactory bulb cells do?

provide cilia on the apical surface of the olfactory sensing area
provide a neuron that projects through the connective tissue to form olfactory nerve
contains the olfactory receptors GPCRs (Golf)

10

what do basal cells do?

progenitor cells that can divide and replace worn out cells

11

what are the serous glands in the nasal cavity doing?

secreting material to coat apical surface

12

what's up with squamous metaplasia?

on the vocal folds and possibly on the ventricular folds there is a change from pseudostratified columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium

13

what's special about the stratified squamous epithelium?

it's ciliated, which makes it very unique in the body, as most stratified squamous cells are not ciliated

14

trachea dimensions?

10 cm long 2.5 cm diameter

15

what's at the rear of the C-rings of trachea?

elastic material and smooth muscle

16

what are the four layers of the tracheal lining?

mucosa, submucosa, cartilage (muscle bridge), adventitia

17

what is the mucosa in the trachea made up of?

PSCE, basement membrane, lamina propria

18

what's in the submucosa of the trachea?

mixed glands, especially abundant in the muscle bridge region; glands are predominantly mucous acini

19

how can you tell the submucosa and the mucosa apart?

elastic fiber bundles

20

what are the five types of cells in the epithelium of the trachea?

ciliated cells
granule/granular cells
brush cells
goblet cells
basal cells

21

what do the ciliated cells do?

they beat the mucus toward the larynx

22

what do the granule/granular cells do?

they produce neuroendocrines (GRP, serotonin, calcitonin or catecholamines)

23

what do the brush cells do?

they are sensory cells probably (they have an afferent nerve)

24

what do the goblet cells do?

they secrete mucous onto the apical membrane

25

what do the basal cells do?

they are progenitor cells/mitotic

26

what's the deal with the tracheal basement membrane?

it's the mother of all basement membranes

27

what's in the lamina propria of the trachea?

vasculature and lymphoid tissue (nodular)

28

which bronchi has more branches?

right

29

what's the smallest unit in a lobule?

a single alveolar duct and all the alveoli it supplies

30

how do you differentiate primary bronchi from intrapulmonary bronchi?

cartilage rings turn into cartilage islands (plates)

31

what's up with the muscle in the intrapulmonary bronchi?

it's spiraled around the bronchi, in opposite directions which helps to keep the bronchi open; it's also a prime target for diseases that close the airways

32

how can you differentiate the bronchioles from the intrapulmonary bronchi?

lack of cartilage plates; transition to cuboidal epithelium, presence of Club cells; lack of submucosal glands; reduction in fluid producing cells

33

what's important about the terminal bronchioles?

this is where cystic fibrosis begins to be able to create problems

34

how can you differentiate terminal bronchioles from bronchioles?

very small smooth muscle layer, and the lumen is irregularly shaped; many Club cells

35

how can you differentiate respiratory bronchioles from terminal bronchioles?

the presence of alveoli branching directly off of the respiratory bronchiole

36

what is the border of gas/blood exchange in the alveoli called?

interalveolar septum

37

what do you find inside the interalveolar septum?

capillaries (abundant), type I cells, type II cells, macrophages (dust cells) of monocytic origin

38

what do you call the reduction in surface area that follows chronic exposure to a toxic substance?

emphysema