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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (47):
1

4 steps of external respiration

*Ventilation
*Gas exchange btn air in alveoli and air in blood
*Transport of O2 and CO2 btn lungs and tissues
*Exchange of O2 and CO2 btn blood and tissues

2

Ventilation

Air in and out of lungs

3

Is rate of Ventilation constant

No, changes with exercise

4

Process by which air is exchanged btn alveoli and capillaries

diffusion

5

How is O2/CO2 transported in blood

O2- Hb
CO2- bicarb.

6

Process by which gas is exchanged btn tissues and blood

Diffusion

7

Internal respiration

metabolic process in the mitochondria

8

RQ

ratio of CO2 produced to O2 used

9

Typical RQ

0.8 (zero point eight)

10

RQ by food

Carb =1
Fat = 0.7
Protein = 0.8

11

Muscle that forms the floor of thoracic cavity

diaphragm

12

Number of ribs in thorax wall

12 pairs

13

purpose of pleura

separate lungs from thoracic wall

14

Pleural fluid comes from

microvasculature of parietal pleura

15

Role of pleural fluid

Lubricant

16

Pleurisy

Inflammation of pleural sac (+painful breathing)

17

Pleurisy sxs

stabbing chest pain w/ deep breaths, dry cough -> frictional rub

18

Origin of pain in pleurisy

Parietal pleura

19

Complication associated w/ pleurisy

Pleural effusion (balance btn oncotic & hydrostatic forces in pleural vessels & lymph)

20

Causes of effusions

viral infections
Cancer
Pneumonia
TB

21

Types of effusion

Hydrothorax (serous)
Hemothorax
chylothorax
pyothorax

22

Sxs of pleural effusion

Short chest pain
Cough
SOB - dyspnea
Tachypnea

23

What to evaluate for in pleural effusion

Composition
Bacteria
Cell counts

24

Dx for pleural effusion

Thoracentesis (insert though back of chest wall)

25

Tx for pleural effusion

Aspiration
Intercostal drain
Chem/surgical pleurodesis (drain + talc)

26

Branches of conducting zone

0-16

27

Anatomic dead space region

conducting zone

28

Branches of respiratory zone

17-23; gas exchange by diffusion

29

Fxn. of conducting zone

warm, humidify, filter air (ciliated w/ smooth muscle)

30

Cells that produce mucus

Goblet in bronchial walls

31

SNS vs PNS effect on smooth muscle

SNS: Relax and dilate
PNS: Contract and constrict

32

SNS vs PNS receptor type

SNS: beta adrenergic
PNS: Muscarinic

33

SNS activated by

Epi, Isoproterenol, Albuterol for Asthma

34

PNS activated by

Muscarine, Carbachol

35

site of gas exchange in respiratory zone

Bronchioles and alveoli

36

Fick's law of diffusion

Amt. of gas diffusing proportional to area and inversely prop. to thickness

37

Adaptations of blood barrier to diffusion

Thin alveolar walls with large surface area

38

Pores of kohn

Facilitate airflow btn. adjacent alveoli = collateral ventilation

39

Type 1 vs Type 2 alveolar cells

Type 1: Wall forming
Type 2: Surfactant producing

40

Purpose of alveolar macrophages

phagocytosis

41

Mucocilliary transport layers

*Sol fluid layer- contains non viscous fluid produced by columnar epithelial ciliated cells, regulated by cAMP/Ca/Cl channels (CFTR)
*Gel fluid layer- contains sticky viscous fluid produced by goblet cells

42

Cilia # & spees

200/cell
1000 strokes/min

43

Kartagener syndrome (Ciliary dyskinesia)

Autosomal recessive defect in gene encoding dynein

44

Consequence of ciliary dyskinesiA

increased infections

45

Cilia arrangement

9+2 arrangement of microtubules, ATPase activity, held togeterh by Dynein arm, nexin links

46

Sxs ciliary dyskinesia

less mucus, more rep. infections

47

Causes of airway epithelial injury/ciliary defects

-Influenza virus
-RSV
-Abnormal cilia
-Sulfar dioxide inhalation