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Mrs W A level Biology > Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration Deck (44)
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1

Where does glycolysis take place?

Cytoplasm

2

What is the purpose of respiration?

Release ATP.

3

Is oxygen needed for glycolysis?

No
Glycolysis is the first series of reactions in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

4

Name the chemical made when glucose is phosphorylated.

Glucose --> glucose phosphate

5

How is triose phosphate made during glycolysis?

Glucose is phosphorylated to form glucose phosphate using ATP
Glucose phosphate is reduced to triose phosphate using NAD.

6

Describe what happens to triose phosphate in glycolysis.

Triose phosphate -> pyruvate + ATP + NADH

Triose phosphate is oxidised to form pyruvate.

7

In anaerobic reparation what is pyruvate is converted into?

In animals - Lactate
In plants and yeast - Ethanol and carbon dioxide.

8

What happens to NADH when pyruvate is converted into lactate?

Oxidised to regenerate NAD.

9

Give 3 differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Aerobic releases more ATP than anaerobic.

Aerobic produces carbon dioxide and water whereas anaerobic produces lactate or ethanol + carbon dioxide.

Aerobic requires oxygen whereas anaerobic does not require oxygen.

10

Which type of transport is used to get pyruvate into the mitochondria?

Active transport.

11

Which organelle is responsible for aerobic respiration

Mitochondria

12

Where precisely does Krebs' cycle and the link reaction take place?

Matrix of mitochondria.

13

Where precisely does the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation take place.

Inner membrane of mitochondria.

14

How is acetate made from pyruvate?

Pyruvate is oxidised / NADH is made.

15

What is the name of the coenzyme that carries acetate.

Coenzyme A

16

Name the process used to make ATP in Krebs' cycle.

Substrate level phosphorylation.

17

Name the particles transported into the intermembrane space during electron transport chain.

Protons

18

Name the enzyme used to make ATP.

ATP synthetase.

19

How is energy provided to transport the protons into the intermembrane space?

Electrons lose energy as they travel along the electron transport chain. This energy is used to actively transport the protons into the intermembrane space.

20

Name the four main stages of aerobic respiration

Glycolysis
Link reaction
Krebs cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation

21

Outline the stages of glycolysis

Gluocse is phosphorylated to glucose phosphate using 2 ATP
Glucose phosphate is hydrolysed into 2 molecules of triose phosphate.
Each triiose phosphate is oxidised to make pyruvate releasing NADH and ATP

22

What are the products of glycolysis?

2 x Pyruvate
2 x ATP (net)
2 x NADH

23

Describe what happens in the link reaction.

Pyruvate is oxidised and decarboxylated
To form acetyl
NADH is produced
Carbon dioxide is released
Acetyl is attached to Coenzyme A

24

Name the co enzymes involved in aerobic respiration

NAD
FAD
Coenzyme A

25

What is a coenzyme?

A non-protein molecule which is needed for an enzyme to work

26

Where does oxidative phopshorylation occur?

Cristae (inner membrane) of mitochondria

27

Describe the process of oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondria

NADH/FADH release electrons
Electron pass along electron transfer chain
Energy released caused protons to be pumped into the intermembrane space creating a electrochemcial gradient
Protons move through ATP synthase
ATP is made from ADP and Pi
Electrons form ETC move to oxygen (terminal electron acceptor)

28

Why is oxygen needed for aerobic respiration?

Final electron acceptor
H+ and electron transport change would stop
NAD and FAD could not be reformed
Other stages of respiration would stop

29

The energy not harvested during the electron transport chain is lost as ...

Heat

30

The mitochondria of metabolically active cells have more densely packed cristae. How does this help these cells?

Greater surface area of inner membrane provides more space for electron transport proteins and enzymes. Increases rate of oxidative phosphorylation