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Flashcards in respiration Deck (21):
1

what is respiration

the process of breacking down glucose to produce energy that can be used in a cell (ATP)

2

what is the equation for respiration

Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide and water

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H20 + 38ATP

3

What are the stages of respiration

Glycolysis
(Link Reaction)
Kreb Cycle
Electron transport chain (Oxidative phosphorylation)

4

which stage of respiration is present in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Glycolysis

5

where does aerobic respiration take place

Mitochondria

6

where does glycolysis take place

cytoplasm

7

describe the process of glycolysis

-Glucose is phosphorylated to make glucose phosphate- 6 carbon (1 ATP USED)
-Glucose phosphate is phosphorylated to fructose bisphosphate -6 carbon- (1 ATP USED)
-Fructose Bisphosphate is split into 2 molecules of triose phoshate
-each triose phosphate molecule is oxidised to pyruvate (1 NAD->NADH and 2ADP->2ATP per molecule of pyruvate)

8

What is the net gain of Glycolysis

2 ATP
2 NADH

9

what is NAD

Coenzyme that gets reduced to NADH
NADH is a reducing agent

10

what happens to Pyruvate in anaerobic conditions

NADH reduces pyruvate to lactate releasing 1 ATP
(or ethanol in yeast)

11

what is the link reaction

pyruvate enters mitochondrial matrix
2 Pyruvate are decarboxylated (CO2 is removed and NAD->NADH) to acetate which joins with co enzyme A to form ACETYL CO A

12

describe the process of the Kreb cycle


Acetyl Co A reacts with 4 carbon molecule (oxaloacetate) to form 6 carbon molecule and releases Co A

6 carbon molecule decarboxylated -> 5 carbon compound (reduced NAD formed) (CO2 released

5 carbon compound-> 4 carbon compound (reduced NAD FORMED, ATP FORMED) (CO2 released

4 carbon compound-> 4 Carbon compound (reduced FAD released)

4 carbon compound-> 4 carbon compound (oxaloacetate) (reduced NAD)

13

what is the product of the Kreb cycle for 1 molecule of Glucose

6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
4 CO2

14

where is the electron transport chain

inner membrane of the mitochondrion

15

what process happens in the electron transport chain

Oxidative phosphorylation

16

how many reducing agents enter the ETC from 1 molecule of glucose

10 NADH (2 from glycolysis, 2 from link reaction, 6 from Kreb cycle)
2FADH (from Kreb cycle)

17

how many molecules of ATP are produced (indirectly) by NADH

3 molecules ATP

18

how many molecules of ATP are produced (indirectly) by FADH

2 molecules ATP

19

how does the electron transport chain work

-NADH loses its electron to the first complex in the electron transport chain. H+ is released from NADH-> NAD+
-the electron now in the first electron accepting complex is at a lower energy level. the energy lost is used to actively pump H+ ions into the intermembrane space
-FADH2 also loses its electron and H+ further down the chain.
-The H+ diffuses down its concentration gradient back across the inner mitochondrial membrane through ATP synthase which uses the chemosmotic gradient to produce ATP

20

what other organic substances can be used in respiration

Lipids
proteins
both are added into the kreb cycle.

21

how are lipids used in respiration

fatty acid and glycerol are hydrolysed
fatty acid broken into acetyl and join with co A to enter Kreb cycle