Flashcards in RESPIRATION, GAS EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT Deck (33):
What does respiration produce?
What does ATP provide?
-energy for cells
What is aerobic respiration?
-Aerobic respiration needs oxygen to work.
-Most of the chemical reactions involved in the process happen in mitochondria.
-Respiration releases energy for use in life processes
What is the word and symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
-glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ energy)
What is the word and symbol equation for anaerobic respiration?
-glucose → lactic acid (+ energy released)
How do you investigate the evolution of carbon dioxide and heat from respiring seeds or other suitable living organisms?
-evolution of CO2- turns limewater milky
-respiring seeds- release CO2 and energy
What is anaerobic respiration?
-Anaerobic respiration is a type of respiration that does not use oxygen.
-It is used when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.
How are alveoli adapted?
-thin walls (just one cell thick)
-large surface area
-many blood capillaries
What happens when you breathe in?
-the internal intercostal muscles relax and the external intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribcage UPWARDS and OUTWARDS
-the diaphragm contracts, pulling downwards
lung volume INCREASES and the air pressure inside decreases
-air is pushed INTO the lungs
What happens when you breathe out?
-the external intercostal muscles relax and the internal intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribcage DOWNWARDS and INWARDS
-the diaphragm relaxes, moving back upwards
lung volume DECREASES and the air pressure inside increases
-air is pushed OUT of the lungs
What are the biological consequences on the lungs?
eg. -lung cancer
What is coronary heart disease?
-coronary heart disease is a disease which affects the coronary vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles
What are the biological consequences of smoking on the heart?
-The nicotine damages the platelets causing blood to clot
Simple, unicellular organisms can rely on diffusion because...
-their walls are very thin
multicellular organisms need a transport system because...
-the rate of diffusion may not be fast enough to meet its cells requirements.
What is the structure of the arteries?
-Carry blood AWAY from the heart (always oxygenated apart from the pulmonary artery which goes to the lungs)
-Have thick muscular walls
-Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
-Contain blood under high pressure
What is the structure of the veins?
-Carry blood TO the heart (always de-oxygenated apart from the pulmonary vein which goes from the lungs to the heart)
-Have thin walls
-Have larger internal lumen
-Contain blood under low pressure
-Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards
What is the structure of the capillaries?
-Found in the muscles and lungs
-Microscopic – one cell thick
-Very low blood pressure
-Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood
What is adrenaline and how does it affect the heart?
-adrenaline is a hormone that affects the heart and blood vessels.
-it is made when someone is angry, scared or excited
-it increases heart rate
-it widens blood vessels going to the brain and muscles
-it narrows blood vessels to the digestive system organs
Factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease
-high cholesterol level
-lack of exercise
-a stressful life!
Symbol equation for aerobic respiration...
-C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
How to investigate breathing in humans, including the release of carbon dioxide and the effect of exercise?
-measure your heart rate by counting heart beats in 15 seconds
-multiply by 4 to give bpm (beats per minute)
-do 20-star jumps
--measure your heart rate again in 15 seconds
-multiply by 4 to give bpm
What is the blood vessel TO the heart?
What is the blood vessel FROM the heart?
What is the blood vessel TO the lungs?
What is the blood vessel FROM the lungs?
What is the blood vessel FROM the liver?
What is the blood vessel FROM the liver?
What is the blood vessel FROM the kidneys?
What is plasma?
-plasma is water and dissolved substances
What does plasma carry
What is ventilation?
-getting air in and out of the lungs