Flashcards in Respiration, gas exchange and transport Deck (64):
What does respiration produce in living organisms ?
What does ATP stand for ?
What does ATP provide for cells ?
What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration ?
- uses oxygen
- best way to transfer energy from glucose
- produces lots of ATP
- type of respiration your using most of the time.
- When you do vigorous exercise
- When body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscles for aerobic respiration
- Doesn't use oxygen
- not the best way to transfer energy from glucose
- releases much less energy
- glucose is only partially broken down
- makes lactic acid
What is the word equation for aerobic respiration ?
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animals ?
glucose → lactic acid
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants ?
glucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide
What happens when plants respire anaerobically ?
Plants can respire without oxygen, but they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide instead of lactic acids
What is the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration ?
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
What is an experiment to investigate the evolution of carbon dioxide from respirating seeds ?
- Crush 10 germinating peas
- Put peas into a boiling tube
- have the boiling tube set up with a delivery tube going from the boiling tube to a tube with bicarbonate indicator
(if it bubbles then then the peas are making carbon dioxide)
What is an experiment to investigate the evolution of heat from respirating seeds ?
- Have 2 flasks
- Set up both flasks with a thermometer going through the middle of them and cotton wool on either side of it at the top
- have peas inside both flasks one with boiled peas and one with normal room temperature peas
In the experiment when experimenting with the heat of seeds, what will be the difference in results from flask A and B ?
Flask A will end up making more heat than flask B because the peas in flask B were boiled so their cells became denatured and they can't respire
What is the role of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm when breathing in ?
The intercostal muscles contract to move the ribs up and outwards.
The diaphragm contracts and moves down
The volume inside the chest increases and this causes the air to rush into the lungs and inflate.
What is the role of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm when breathing out ?
The intercostal muscles relax to move the ribs down and inwards
The diaphragm relaxes and moves up
The volume inside the chest decreases and the air rushes out and the lungs deflate.
What 3 ways are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange ?
- Each alveolus is folded which gives a large surface area
- The wall of the alveolus are only one cell thick which is short for fast diffusion
- The lining of the alveolus is moist, gases can dissolve this speeds up diffusion
How are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange by diffusion from blood to capillaries ?
Each alveolus is surrounded by blood Capillaries to transport oxygen
How are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange by diffusion by air in the lungs ?
in each lung there are millions of alveoli for large surface area
What are the 6 effects of smoking on the lungs ?
- destroys lung tissue
- narrows airways
- tar builds up inside lungs
- alveoli in lungs shrink and get destroyed
- chemicals in in cigarette smoke damage cilia (this means mucus and bacteria cannot be moved out of lungs)
- alveoli gets damaged this makes their walls thicker and reduces surface area
What are the 7 effects of smoking in the circulatory system ?
- raised blood pressure and heart rate
- constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature
- less oxygen carried by the blood during exercise
- ‘stickier’ blood, which is more prone to clotting
- damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
- reduced blood flow to extremities (fingers and toes)
- increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.
How can smoking effect your chances of getting coronary heart disease and why ?
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits (atheroma) on the walls of the arteries around the heart (coronary arteries).
Nicotine and carbon monoxide (from the smoke) put a strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots.
What is an experiment to investigate the breathing in humans, including the release of carbon dioxide and the effect of exercise ?
- time 1 minute and measure breathing rate before exercise
- time 1 minute and measure breathing rate after exercise
- Then work out breathing rate difference
How would find out if carbon dioxide by using limewater ?
Get someone to blow into a straw which is in the limewater if the limewater goes cloudy then carbon dioxide is present
Why can simple unicellular organisms rely on diffusion for movement of substances in and out of he cell ?
Because they have very thin cell walls so it is a short distance for diffusion
Why do multicellular organisms need a transport system ?
Because they have a long distance to diffuse
How does the heart rate change during exercise and under the influence of adrenaline ?
what 5 factors increase your chances of getting coronary heart disease ?
- high blood cholesterol level
- high blood pressure
- if it runs in the family
Where are red blood cells made ?
Where is the white blood cell phagocyte made ?
Where is the white blood cell lymphocyte made ?
Where are platelets made ?
Does a red blood cell have a nucleus ?
Does a phagocyte have a nucleus ?
Does a lymphocyte have a nucleus ?
Does a platelet have a nucleus ?
What is the main function of a red blood cell ?
What is the main function of a phagocyte ?
Engulf and destroy microbes
What is the main function of a lymphocyte ?
What is the main function of a platelet ?
help blood clot
What is the role of plasma ?
Transports dissolved substances
- amino acids
- carbon dioxide
What 3 adaptations do red blood cells have to make them suitable for carrying oxygen ?
- have large surface area to absorb oxygen
- contain haemoglobin a protein which contains iron and carries oxygen
- do not have a nucleus so the cell can contain more haemoglobin
Where are the ribs ?
bones covering lungs etc
Where are the intercostal muscles ?
muscle in between the rib bones
Where is the diaphragm ?
muscle under the ribcage
Where is the trachea ?
Where is the bronchi ?
pipe by the bottom of the heart
Where is the bronchioles ?
tubes branching off bronchi
Where is the alveoli ?
tiny air sacs at each end of bronchiole
where is the pleural membrane ?
line of membrane under the ribs and intercostal muscles
Which side of the heart pumps blood to the body ?
Which side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs ?
Which side of the heart gets blood from the body ?
Which side of the heart gets blood from the lungs ?
Which side of the heart has oxygenated blood ?
Which side of the heart has deoxygenated blood ?
Where are the pulmonary artery ?
the pump at the top of the right side of the heart
Where is the pulmonary vein ?
the pump on the side of the left side of the heart
Where is the left ventricle ?
the lower area of the left side of the heart beneath the valve
Where is the right ventricle ?
the lower area of the right side of the heart beneath the valve
where is the right atrium ?
the area on the right side of the heart above the valve
Where is the left atrium ?
the area on the left side of the heart above the valve
Where is the aorta ?
the pump on the left side of the heart at the top
How does the structure of the arteries relate to their functions ?
carry blood away from heart and have a thick layer of muscle to pump the blood away, narrow space inside so blood doesn't return towards the heart
How does the structure of the capillaries relate to their functions ?
connect arteries to veins, thin walls so the food and oxygen can diffuse through cells, slow speed to allow exchange of materials