Respiration, gas exchange and transport Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiration, gas exchange and transport Deck (64):
1

What does respiration produce in living organisms ?

ATP

2

What does ATP stand for ?

Adenosine Tri-Phosphate

3

What does ATP provide for cells ?

Energy

4

What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration ?

Aerobic respiration:
- uses oxygen
- best way to transfer energy from glucose
- produces lots of ATP
- type of respiration your using most of the time.
Anaerobic respiration:
- When you do vigorous exercise
- When body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscles

for anaerobic respiration
- Doesn't use oxygen
- not the best way to transfer energy from glucose
- releases much less energy
- glucose is only partially broken down
- makes lactic acid

5

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration ?

glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water

6

What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animals ?

glucose → lactic acid

7

What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants ?

glucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide

8

What happens when plants respire anaerobically ?

Plants can respire without oxygen, but they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide instead of lactic acids

9

What is the balanced symbol equation for aerobic respiration ?

C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

10

What is an experiment to investigate the evolution of carbon dioxide from respirating seeds ?

- Crush 10 germinating peas
- Put peas into a boiling tube
- have the boiling tube set up with a delivery tube going from the boiling tube to a tube with bicarbonate indicator
(if it bubbles then then the peas are making carbon dioxide)

11

What is an experiment to investigate the evolution of heat from respirating seeds ?

- Have 2 flasks
- Set up both flasks with a thermometer going through the middle of them and cotton wool on either side of it at the top
- have peas inside both flasks one with boiled peas and one with normal room temperature peas

12

In the experiment when experimenting with the heat of seeds, what will be the difference in results from flask A and B ?

Flask A will end up making more heat than flask B because the peas in flask B were boiled so their cells became denatured and they can't respire

13

What is the role of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm when breathing in ?

The intercostal muscles contract to move the ribs up and outwards.
The diaphragm contracts and moves down
The volume inside the chest increases and this causes the air to rush into the lungs and inflate.

14

What is the role of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm when breathing out ?

The intercostal muscles relax to move the ribs down and inwards
The diaphragm relaxes and moves up
The volume inside the chest decreases and the air rushes out and the lungs deflate.

15

What 3 ways are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange ?

- Each alveolus is folded which gives a large surface area
- The wall of the alveolus are only one cell thick which is short for fast diffusion
- The lining of the alveolus is moist, gases can dissolve this speeds up diffusion

16

How are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange by diffusion from blood to capillaries ?

Each alveolus is surrounded by blood Capillaries to transport oxygen

17

How are the alveoli adapted for gas exchange by diffusion by air in the lungs ?

in each lung there are millions of alveoli for large surface area

18

What are the 6 effects of smoking on the lungs ?

- destroys lung tissue
- narrows airways
- tar builds up inside lungs
- alveoli in lungs shrink and get destroyed
- chemicals in in cigarette smoke damage cilia (this means mucus and bacteria cannot be moved out of lungs)
- alveoli gets damaged this makes their walls thicker and reduces surface area

19

What are the 7 effects of smoking in the circulatory system ?

- raised blood pressure and heart rate
- constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature
- less oxygen carried by the blood during exercise
- ‘stickier’ blood, which is more prone to clotting
- damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
- reduced blood flow to extremities (fingers and toes)
- increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply

20

How can smoking effect your chances of getting coronary heart disease and why ?

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is usually caused by a build-up of fatty deposits (atheroma) on the walls of the arteries around the heart (coronary arteries).
Nicotine and carbon monoxide (from the smoke) put a strain on the heart by making it work faster. They also increase your risk of blood clots

21

What is an experiment to investigate the breathing in humans, including the release of carbon dioxide and the effect of exercise ?

- time 1 minute and measure breathing rate before exercise
- time 1 minute and measure breathing rate after exercise
- Then work out breathing rate difference

22

How would find out if carbon dioxide by using limewater ?

Get someone to blow into a straw which is in the limewater if the limewater goes cloudy then carbon dioxide is present

23

Why can simple unicellular organisms rely on diffusion for movement of substances in and out of he cell ?

Because they have very thin cell walls so it is a short distance for diffusion

24

Why do multicellular organisms need a transport system ?

Because they have a long distance to diffuse

25

How does the heart rate change during exercise and under the influence of adrenaline ?

It increases

26

what 5 factors increase your chances of getting coronary heart disease ?

- obesity
- smoking
- high blood cholesterol level
- high blood pressure
- if it runs in the family

27

Where are red blood cells made ?

Bone marrow

28

Where is the white blood cell phagocyte made ?

Bone marrow

29

Where is the white blood cell lymphocyte made ?

Lymphnodes

30

Where are platelets made ?

Bone marrow

31

Does a red blood cell have a nucleus ?

No

32

Does a phagocyte have a nucleus ?

Yes

33

Does a lymphocyte have a nucleus ?

Yes

34

Does a platelet have a nucleus ?

No

35

What is the main function of a red blood cell ?

Carry oxygen

36

What is the main function of a phagocyte ?

Engulf and destroy microbes

37

What is the main function of a lymphocyte ?

make anti-bodies

38

What is the main function of a platelet ?

help blood clot

39

What is the role of plasma ?

Transports dissolved substances
- glucose
- amino acids
- salt
- hormones
- urea
- carbon dioxide

40

What 3 adaptations do red blood cells have to make them suitable for carrying oxygen ?

- have large surface area to absorb oxygen
- contain haemoglobin a protein which contains iron and carries oxygen
- do not have a nucleus so the cell can contain more haemoglobin

41

Where are the ribs ?

bones covering lungs etc

42

Where are the intercostal muscles ?

muscle in between the rib bones

43

Where is the diaphragm ?

muscle under the ribcage

44

Where is the trachea ?

windpipe

45

Where is the bronchi ?

pipe by the bottom of the heart

46

Where is the bronchioles ?

tubes branching off bronchi

47

Where is the alveoli ?

tiny air sacs at each end of bronchiole

48

where is the pleural membrane ?

line of membrane under the ribs and intercostal muscles

49

Which side of the heart pumps blood to the body ?

Left

50

Which side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs ?

Right

51

Which side of the heart gets blood from the body ?

Right

52

Which side of the heart gets blood from the lungs ?

Left

53

Which side of the heart has oxygenated blood ?

Left

54

Which side of the heart has deoxygenated blood ?

Right

55

Where are the pulmonary artery ?

the pump at the top of the right side of the heart

56

Where is the pulmonary vein ?

the pump on the side of the left side of the heart

57

Where is the left ventricle ?

the lower area of the left side of the heart beneath the valve

58

Where is the right ventricle ?

the lower area of the right side of the heart beneath the valve

59

where is the right atrium ?

the area on the right side of the heart above the valve

60

Where is the left atrium ?

the area on the left side of the heart above the valve

61

Where is the aorta ?

the pump on the left side of the heart at the top

62

How does the structure of the arteries relate to their functions ?

carry blood away from heart and have a thick layer of muscle to pump the blood away, narrow space inside so blood doesn't return towards the heart

63

How does the structure of the capillaries relate to their functions ?

connect arteries to veins, thin walls so the food and oxygen can diffuse through cells, slow speed to allow exchange of materials

64

How does the structure of the veins relate to their functions ?

carry blood to heart, have valves to stop blood flowing away from heart, thin layer of muscle because not pumping very strongly, wide space inside so more blood can flow back and blood flows at low pressure