Respiration Lecture 03: Volumes and Ventilation Flashcards Preview

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Tidal volume

amt. of air brought in and out of lung w/ each normal breath

1

breath

an inspiration and subsequent expiration

2

2 phases of a breath

inflation (inspiration) and deflation (expiration)

3

airflow

rate at which gas moves

4

alveolar pressure is _____during inspiration, ____at rest, and ______during expiration

negative, 0, positive

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What affects airflow into/out of lung?

driving force (change in pressure) and forces that resist movement of air

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pleural pressure is ______during inspiration, ______at rest, and ______during expiration

negative, more negative, negative

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the tendency of the lung to collapse is due to:

tissue forces that oppose lung expansion

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compliance

relationship between the change in volume and change in pressure. The "stretchability of the system." Is directly related to the physical properties of the system

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surface tension

force that acts at gas-liquid interface which tends to reduce the surface area of the interface. Pulls like molecules towards eachother and reduces area of the air-liquid interface by i.e. collapsing an air bubble, creating a pressure in the air bubble which opposes this force

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Laplace Law

describes the pressure required to keep bubble/alveolus open. P = 2t/r where t is wall tension and r is radius of bubble/alveolus

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What size alveolus have the greatest tendency to collapse?

small

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surfactant

substance that works to reduce the air-liquid interface

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Where is surfactant produced?

Alveolar Type II cells

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Consequences of surfactant insufficiency

lung can't expand as easily, alveoli may collapse, alveoli will flood with fluid from capillaries (surfactant helps keep alveoli dry)

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