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WPP II Urinary & Respiratory > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (86):
1

Q: How many lobes do each lung have?

A: Right has three / Left has Two.

2

Q: Where is upper respiratory system?

A: Above the lyrynx

3

Q: How many bronchial tubes are there?

A: Two.

4

Q: What is end of line for respiration in the lungs?

A: The alveolis

5

Q: Name anatomical parts of respiratory system from the nasal cavity down to the Aveoli”

A: • Mouth • Epiglottus • Pharynx (throat) • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchus (Brochial Tubes, Bronchial Plexus) • Bronchioloes • Terminal Bronchioles • Aveoli

6

Q: What kind of lining do the Pharynx, Larynx, and Nasal Cavity have?

A: Mucus Membrane

7

Q: What kind of lining do the trachea, Bronchus & Bronchioles have?

A: Pseudostatified Epithelial

8

Q: What kind of lining do the Terminal Bronchioles and Alveoli have?

A: Squamous Epithelium.

9

Q: What anatomical material supports the Larynx, Trachea & Bronchus? (A) Bone (B) Muscle (C) Hyaline Cartilage (D) Smooth Muscle (E) Surfactant?

Answer: Hyaline Cartilage

10

Q: What anatomical material supports the Alveoli? (A) Bone (B) Muscle (C) Hyaline Cartilage (D) Smooth Muscle (E) Surfactant

(E) Surfactant

11

Q: What anatomical material supports the Bronchiole and Terminal Bronchiole? (A) Bone (B) Muscle (C) Hyaline Cartilage (D) Smooth Muscle (E) Surfactant

(D) Smooth Muscle

12

Q: What anatomical material supports the Pharynx? (A) Bone (B) Muscle (C) Hyaline Cartilage (D) Smooth Muscle (E) Surfactant

(B) Muscle

13

Q: What anatomical material supports the Nasal Cavity? (A) Bone (B) Muscle (C) Hyaline Cartilage (D) Smooth Muscle (E) Surfactant

(A) Bone

14

Q: What mechanism exchanges deoxygenated blood to Alveoli?

A: Capillary Plexus

15

Q: Which way does OXYGEN flow..TO or FROM the Alveoli?

A: The heart pumps deoxygenated blood from the right side via the Pulmonary Artery to the lungs to the capillaries then oxygen is exchanged FROM the Alveoli to the blood and the oxygenated blood sent back via the the Pulmonary Vein to fill the left side of the heart where it is then pumped via the Systemic Artery to the body (to send oxygen to the body tissues and organs). Pressure is high where blood comes from the left side of the heart via the artery and weakens as it returns to the right side of the heart. Valves in the veins prevent back flow of blood.

16

Q: Which way do veins carry blood…TO or FROM the heart?

A: TO the heart (it is deoxygenated) Veins have valves that prevent the back flow of blood.

17

Q: What do surfactant secreting cells do?

A: Decrease the surface tension of the cell to facilitate oxygen exchange.

18

Q: How is CO2 transported away from Tissue Cells?

A: It is dissolved and transported in the blood plasma

19

Q: Is breathing controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System, Voluntary Nervous, or Both?

A: Both

20

Q: Which part of the brain controls voluntary breathing?

A: Cerebral Cortex

21

Q: Which part of the brain controls autonomic breathing?

A: Brainstem

22

Q: Which is the ONLY physiological process under both Voluntary and Autonomic control? (A)Digestion (B) Breathing (C) Sleeping (D) Sneezing?

(B) Breathing

23

Q: Is it likely to get cancer of the diaphragm?

A: NO

24

Q: At normal breathing levels the cost of breathing represents less than 2%. With exercise does this level increase or decrease?

A: Increases

25

Q: With exercise there an increase in ventilation? True or False

A: True. There is an increase of ventilation to provide oxygen to the muscles.

26

Q: ZONG QI represents the O2 Phase or the 36 ATP Phase of respiration?

A: The O2 Phase. 36 ATP represents the Zhen Qi Phase

27

Q: Under resting conditions, what is the Tidal Volume of the lungs?

A: 500 ml Amt. of air enter and leave lungs

28

Q: What is the total amount that you can breathe in through deep breathing and what is it called? 1: (A) 500ml (B) 1200ml (C) 3100ml (D) 5000ml
2: IRV / ERV / RV / TV

(C) 3100ml
IRV (Inspiratory Reserve Volume)

29

Q: What is the total amount that you can push out during normal respiration? (A) 500ml (B) 1200ml* (C) 3100ml (D) 5000ml * approximately one liter of air

(B) 1200ml*
*approximately one liter of air

30

Q: What is the name for the amount of air that you can push out after normal respiration?

A: Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

31

Q: Four primary volumes making up the TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY?

1. Tidal volume (TV)
2. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
3. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
4. Residual volume (RV)

32

Q: Volume of air remaining in lungs after a FORCED expiration is also known as what? And how many ML of air is left?

A: Residual Volume (RV), 1200 ml of air.

33

Q: What makes up the VITAL CAPACITY of the lungs?

A: Vital Capacity = Tidal Volume + IRV + ERV.

34

Q: What is the main difference between VITAL CAPACITY and TOTAL CAPACITY of lungs?

A: Vital Capacity does not include Residual Volume (RV)

35

Q: What is the main way to predict a diseased state of the lungs? 1. A familial history of lung disease?
2. Expectoration of green sputum?
3. Deviation from the normal predicted values of capacity?
4. Wheezing on inhalation?

3. Deviation from the normal predicted values of capacity?

36

Q: What two factors determine the INSPIRATORY CAPACITY of the lungs?

A: The Tidal Volume + The Inspiratory Reserve Volume = (3600ml)

37

Q: What two factors determine the FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY of the lungs?

A: Residual Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume = (2400ml)

38

Q: What is the TOTAL CAPACITY of the lungs?

A: Vital Capacity + Residual Volume = (6000 ml)

39

Q: What is the VITAL CAPACITY of the lungs?

A: Tidal Volume + Inspiratory + Expiratory Reserve Volumes = (4800 ml)
How much air you are capable of inhaling and exhaling.

40

Q: What test Is performed before, during and after a treatment?

A: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs)

41

Q: What is the primary diagnostic tool to detect pulmonary disorders?

A: (PFT’s) Pulmonary Function Tests

42

Q: What instrument is used in a Pulmonary Function Test?

A: PFT’s are done with Spirometers

43

Q: What does a Spirometer measure?

Q: What does a Spirometer measure?
A: The AMOUNT and RATE of air a person breathes in.

44

Q: What does FEV stand for?

A: Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second. The amount of air forcefully exhaled in 1 second.

45

Q: What is a COPD?

A: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

46

Q: What diseases are evident in compromised FEV1 results?
1. All COPD’s
2. Emphysema
3. Chronic Bronchitis
4. Asthma
5. All of the above

Answer: All of the above
To diagnose asthma: Having a low FEV1 and low FEV1/FVC means that the air has a hard time leaving the lungs, which indicates airway limited due to inflammation.

47

Q: Are Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis obstructive disorders?

A: Yes. However, ASTHMA is NOT a COPD, Astma is not chronic, but rather inflammatory.

48

Q: Are Asthma and Chronic Bronchitis both COPD’s Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases?

- Chronic Bronchitis = Yes
- Asthma = No (Antibody E is involved)
Asthma is NOT a COPD, Asthma is a Chronic Obstruction Disorder due to an excessive mucus production, inflammation and broncho-constriction and/or a Chronic Inflammatory Disease of the airways that is characterized by episodes of cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. Asthma is due to muscle constriction.

49

Q: What part of airway is affected in obstructive disorder?
1. Trachea
2. Pseudostratified Epithelium
3. Lumen
4. Submucosal Mucous Glands

3. Lumen

50

Q: Are Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis COPD’s Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases?

A: Yes.

51

Q: What is Asthma?
1. bronchial hyper-reactivity
2. increased sensitivity of the airways
3. airway constriction in response to nonspecific stimulation
4. All of the above

4. All of the above

52

Q: What percentage of Asthma patients suffer from allergies?
1. 50%
2. 25%
3. 80%
4. 100%

3. 80%

53

Q: Will an inhaler help during an asthma attack/excacerbation?

A: An inhaler does not work. BRONCHOSPASM. Refer immediately. Irreversible.

54

Q: True or false; mucus is present in Asthma?

A: True, as well as the Antibody E.

55

Q: What percentage of the population is affected by Asthma?
1. 50%
2. 75%
3. 20%
4. 5%

5%

56

Q: What area of the population is most at risk?

A: Backs aged 15–24 years (and also children)

57

Q: What are the three confirming signs of Asthma?

1. Bronchoconstriction
2. Inflammation / edema
3. Increased “viscous” mucous production

58

Q: What is AIR TRAPPING?

Because of the increased smooth muscle tone during an asthma attack, the airways also tend to close at abnormally high lung volumes, trapping air behind narrowed small airways. Consequently one breathes at the top of one’s lung capacity – over a mass of stagnant air that can’t be exhaled

59

Q: What diseases are implicated in a patient with a BARREL CHEST?

1. Emphysema & Asthma (Lung Hyperinflation)

60

Q: True or False…the Sterno Cleido Mastoid (SCM)muscles are worked harder in people with lung hyperinflation?

A: True

61

Q: What disease? Episodic wheezing. Dyspnea. Chest tightness and cough.

A: Asthma (symptoms are highly variable. Some patients may have only a chronic dry cough and others a productive cough. Some patients have infrequent, brief attacks of asthma and others may suffer nearly continuous symptoms)

62

Q: Symptoms of asthma are worse during the day 3-4pm, or at night 3-4am?

A: Night 3-4am

63

Q: True or False: Signs of asthma: Nasal flaring, skin color, clubbing of fingers…

A: True (also Tripod position and excema))

64

Q: True or False: Wheezing during forced expiration correlates well with the presence of airflow obstruction?

A: False: Wheezing during normal breathing or a prolonged forced expiratory phase correlates well with the presence of airflow obstruction.

65

Many people need only one or two types of medication to manage their asthma?

(2) Many people with asthma need both a short-acting bronchodilator to use when symptoms worsen and long term daily asthma control medication to treat the ongoing inflammation.

66

Theophylline is a long-term control or short term control medication?

Long term.
...used either alone to treat mild persistent asthma or together with inhaled corticosteroids to treat moderate persistent asthma. People who take theophylline should have their blood levels checked to be sure the dose is appropriate.

67

Leukotriene Modifiers is a long-term control or short term control medication?

Leukotriene modifiers (Montelukast, Zafirlukast, and Zileuton) are long-term control medicines used either alone to treat mild persistent asthma or together with inhaled corticosteroids to treat moderate persistent asthma or, severe persistent asthma.

68

Montelukast, Zafirlukast, and Zileuton are all what category of medication?

Leukotriene modifiers for asthma.

69

Inhaled Corticosteroids are long term or short term medication?

Short term.
...steroids, the preferred treatment for controlling mild, moderate, and severe persistent asthma. Inhaled medicines go directly into the lungs where they are needed. Corticosteroids reduce the swelling of airways that make asthma attacks more likely.

70

Long-acting beta-agonists are used to prevent AM or PM symptoms?

These medicines are used to help control moderate and severe asthma and to prevent nighttime symptoms.

Long-acting beta-agonists are often taken together with inhaled corticosteroid medicine.

71

Bronchodilators are for long term or shorter?

Short term. Quick Relief (“rescue”) Inhaler
These medicines take effect within minutes and are used only when needed

72

How do bronchodilators work?

Bronchodilators work by relaxing tightened muscles around the airways.
These medicines act quickly but their effects only last for a short period of time.
They are used at the first sign of asthma symptoms like coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, or shortness of breath.
Bronchodilators are not anti-inflammatory drugs.

73

Four components of asthma treatment?

1. Monitor symptoms and pulmonary function
2. Control environmental exposures
3. Educate patient regarding avoidance of 4. triggers and proper treatment
4. Medications

74

Handheld devices designed as home monitoring tools are called what?

Peak expiratory flow (PEF)
PEF monitoring can establish peak flow variability, quantify asthma severity, and provide both the patient and the clinician with objective measurements on which to base treatment decisions.

75

Bronchial provocation testing useful when asthma is suspected and spirometry is non diagnostic?

(A) Peak expiratory flow (PEF)
(B) Methacholine Challenge
(C) Bronchodialator

(B) Methacholine Challenge
Bronchial provocation testing with methacholine may be useful when asthma is suspected and spirometry is nondiagnostic.

76

True or false? Asthma severity will determine treatment protocols.

True

77

Can people with mild asthma have a severe acute attack?

Yes

78

- Symptoms < 2 times a week.
- Asymptomatic and normal PEF between exacerbation / Exacerbations brief (few hours to few days); intensity may vary. / Night time symptoms < 2 times per week.

(A) Severe Persistent
(B) Mild Intermittent
(C) Mild Persistent
(D) Moderate Persistent

(B) Mild Intermittent

79

- Symptoms > 2 times a week but < 1 time a day. / Exacerbations may affect activity. / Nighttime Symptoms >2 times per month

(A) Severe Persistent
(B) Mild Intermittent
(C) Mild Persistent.
(D) Moderate Persistent

(C) Mild Persistent

80

Continual symptoms

Limited physical activity

Frequent exacerbations

Night time symptoms are frequent

(A) Severe Persistent (B) Mild Intermittent (C) Mild Persistent. (D) Moderate Persistent

(A) Severe Persistent

81

Asthma Triggers include:

Environmental / Tobacco Smoke
Dust Mites
Outdoor Air Pollution / Poor Air Quality
Cockroach Allergen
Pet Dander
Mold
Cold air / exercise / high humidity

82

What questions do you ask to determine...

Extrinsic Asthma
Intrinsic Asthma
Exercise–induced Asthma
Triad Asthma (Sampter’s)
Cough-variant Asthma
Occupational Asthma
Refractory Asthma

83

Bronchodilators can be used daily or as needed?

A: Both

84

True or False: Bronchodilators are anti-inflammatory drugs?

False

85

Asthma VS COPD?

Both asthma and COPD are long-term conditions that can’t be cured, but the outlooks for each differ. Asthma tends to be more easily controlled on a daily basis. Whereas COPD worsens over time. While people with asthma and COPD tend to have the diseases for life, in some cases of childhood asthma, the disease goes away completely after childhood.

86

Asthma VS COPD aggravated by...?

Asthma is usually made worse by exposure to allergens / cold air / exercise.

COPD aggravations are largely caused by respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia and the flu.