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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (41):
1

Normal children can get up to ___ infections per year, each lasting within 7-14 days, and that's kind of expected

4-12

2

Incubation phase for pertussis

5-10 days (range 4-21 days)

3

If patient presents with persistent, severe, coughing, difficult to dispel thick mucous, characteristic "Whoop", post-jussive coughing that has occurred 1-2 weeks after onset of mild URI symptoms, think

pertussis

4

Pertussis tx

-antibiotics highly beneficial in early course of disease: azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin
- supportive care
- antibiotics for household contacts and those at risk with 21 days of exposure, individuals exposed to /working with infants

5

Gold standard for pertussis dx, other option?

culture
may take 1-2 weeks for result
positive test less likely with prolonged cough

N/P aspirant with salient flush preferable to swap

6

Foreign body aspiration most commonly lodges where? Affects what age group

Right mainstream bronchus
Most common in ages 1-3 years

7

Young children average ___ URIs/year

4-6

8

What are the 4 main viral causes of bronchitis?

- influenza
- RSV
- adenovirus
- parainfluenza

9

If patient present febrile, with a cough and illness lasting less than 3 weeks, ronchi and referred breath sounds, think

acute bronchitis

10

If patient has a productive cough that lasts for more than 3 months, think

chronic bronchitis

11

What do the following s/s indicate:
- dry, hacking, unproductive cough that begins a few days after onset of rhinitis and fever
- dry harsh cough that progresses to productive
- low grade fever or none
- coarse breath sounds, ronchi, rales

bronchitis

12

Are CXRs routinely done to r/o bronchitis

no

13

Management for bronchitis

supportive only
hydration, analgesics

14

Leading cause of hospitalization for infants

bronchiolitis

15

most common cause of bronchiolitis? when does it commonly present?

RSV
late fall through early spring

16

If patient is less than 24 months of age and presents with abrupt onset of wheezing, cough, dyspnea, preceding URI/rhinitis, low grade fever, decreased appetite, think

bronchiolitis

17

Treatment for bronchiolitis

supportive:
- increase fluids (small frequent)
- environmental humidity
- clear secretions (saline nose gets with nasal aspirator before feeds and sleeping)
- acetaminophen for fever PRN

18

most common type of pneumonia

viral

19

Most common etiology of pneumonia in neonates (3)

- group B strep
- staph
- e coli

20

Most common cause of pneumonia in children up to 2

RSV

21

chlamydia pneumonia can occur in children from __ to __ weeks of age

2-12

22

to treat bacterial pneumonia/pneumonia in under 5 population, use

amoxicillin

23

most common etiology for pneumonia in the under 5 population (2)

strep pneumonia and h influenza

24

most common etiology for pneumonia in the over 5 population (3)

- group A strep
- mycoplasma pneumo
- staph

25

What to treat pneumonia in the over 5 population

Zithromax

26

If child presents with mild to high fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, crackles, dullness to percussion and wheezing, think

pneumonia

27

diagnostics/labs for suspected pneumonia (4)

- CXR
- CBC with diff
- Blood culture if toxic
- mycoplasma antibody titer if suspected

28

Should children with pneumonia take cough suppressants?

no

29

most common chronic illness in children

asthma

30

is the normal child who presents with asthma asymptomatic during PE?

yes

31

gold standard for asthma DX

spirometry

32

What classification of asthma?
- sx of cough, wheeze, chest tightness or difficulty breathing less than 2x week
- nighttime sx less than 2x month
- no sx between flare-ups

mild intermittent

33

What classification of asthma?
- sx of cough, wheeze, chest tightness or difficulty breathing 3-6x/week
- nighttime sx 3-4x/ month
- flareups may affect activity level

mild persistent

34

What classification of asthma?
- sx of cough, wheeze, chest tightness or difficulty breathing daily
- nighttime sx 5+x/month
- flareups may affect activity level

moderate persistent

35

What classification of asthma?
- sx of cough, wheeze, chest tightness or difficulty breathing continual
- nighttime sx frequently

severe persistent

36

A 4 year old comes to the office for a routine well visit. Mom reports he uses his Albuterol 2x/month with URIs. sleeps well, no nocturnal cough. He has what type of asthma?

mild intermittent

37

A six year old in the office using Albuterol every week has nocturnal cough and has just completed his second round of ORapred from ExpressCare visit this month. what would be the next step in tx?

1. begin low dose inhaled corticosteroids
2. increased albuterol to QID
3. Refer to pulm
4. No change in tx plan

begin low dose inhaled corticosteroids

38

Most common agent for non-viral pneumonia from older preschool to young adulthood?

1. mycoplasma/chlamydia aureus
2. staph aureus
3. ureaplasma
4. haemophilus influenza

1. mycoplasma/chlamydia aureus

39

Cystic fibrosis is what type of inheritance?

autosomal recessive (25%)

40

multi system genetic disorder manifested by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GI dysfunction, and exocrine dysfunction

CF

41

diagnostics for CF

- sweat chloride test
- generic analysis for CFTR mutation