Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (59)
What is the diaphragm?
A dome shaped musculotendinous sheet
Where does the costal and crural portion of the diaphragm arise from?
Costal- xipohoid process and costochondral 8-12
Crural- ventral L1-4
What lines the thorax?
What does the visceral pleura line?
What are the three types of parietal pleura?
Mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal
What is a pneumothorax?
A collapsed lung di to hole in the pleura
What do the nasal turbinates do to air entering the lungs?
Warm, humidify, clean
Describe the route of air from the nasal cavity to the trachea
Nasal cavity to nasopharynx to larynx through glottic cleft into infraglottic cavity to trachea
Whee does the trachea terminate?
At the tracheal bifurcation, dorsal to base of heart
Describe the structure of the trachea?
Fibrocartilagenous rings joined by elastic connective tissue, ends joined by tracheal muscle with ciliated lining
What do pigs and ruminants have before tracheal birfurcation?
What are the lobes of the right lung?
Cranial, middle, caudal and accessory
What are the lobes of the left lung?
Cranial (caudal part and cranial part) and caudal
What do primary bronchus give off?
A secondary bronchus or lobar bronchus each to a lobe
What does a lobar bronchus give off?
Tertiary/ segmental bronchi
What is the portion of tissue called that a tertiary bronchus supplies?
Bronchopulmonary segment or primary lobule
What epithelium lines the airways?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What defines the division of bronchi and bronchioles?
The loss of cartilagenous rings and submucosal glands
What do bronchioles eventually feed into?
Terminal bronchioles- respiratory bronchioles- alveolar ducts- alveolar sacs
How does the divisions form a monopodial system?
Parent bronchus gives off much smaller daughter bronchus continues 6 times then splits into 2 equal bronchi
How do respiratory bronchioles enable some gaseous exchange?
They posses alveolar outpouchings in their walls
What separates the alveoli and the blood?
Epithelial lining of alveolus, basement membrane, and endothelial cell of capillary wall
What are the two types of alveolar cells (alvelocytes)?
Type 1 - simple squamous
Type 2- cuboidal
What are the functions of type 1 and 2 alvelocytes?
type 1- exchange
type 2- produce surfactant
What cell other then alveolocytes can be found in the alveolars?
What is a bundle of bronchus, artery and vein called?
A bronchovascular bundle
What arteries supply the lungs?
Bronchial arteries from aorta
What drains the lungs?
Bronchial veins into azygous
What innervates the lungs?
Pulmonary plexus from the vagus