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Year 1 NSF > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (59)
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1

What is the diaphragm?

A dome shaped musculotendinous sheet

2

Where does the costal and crural portion of the diaphragm arise from?

Costal- xipohoid process and costochondral 8-12
Crural- ventral L1-4

3

What lines the thorax?

The pleura

4

What does the visceral pleura line?

The lungs

5

What are the three types of parietal pleura?

Mediastinal, diaphragmatic, costal

6

What is a pneumothorax?

A collapsed lung di to hole in the pleura

7

What do the nasal turbinates do to air entering the lungs?

Warm, humidify, clean

8

Describe the route of air from the nasal cavity to the trachea

Nasal cavity to nasopharynx to larynx through glottic cleft into infraglottic cavity to trachea

9

Whee does the trachea terminate?

At the tracheal bifurcation, dorsal to base of heart

10

Describe the structure of the trachea?

Fibrocartilagenous rings joined by elastic connective tissue, ends joined by tracheal muscle with ciliated lining

11

What do pigs and ruminants have before tracheal birfurcation?

Tracheal bronchus

12

What are the lobes of the right lung?

Cranial, middle, caudal and accessory

13

What are the lobes of the left lung?

Cranial (caudal part and cranial part) and caudal

14

What do primary bronchus give off?

A secondary bronchus or lobar bronchus each to a lobe

15

What does a lobar bronchus give off?

Tertiary/ segmental bronchi

16

What is the portion of tissue called that a tertiary bronchus supplies?

Bronchopulmonary segment or primary lobule

17

What epithelium lines the airways?

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

18

What defines the division of bronchi and bronchioles?

The loss of cartilagenous rings and submucosal glands

19

What do bronchioles eventually feed into?

Terminal bronchioles- respiratory bronchioles- alveolar ducts- alveolar sacs

20

How does the divisions form a monopodial system?

Parent bronchus gives off much smaller daughter bronchus continues 6 times then splits into 2 equal bronchi

21

How do respiratory bronchioles enable some gaseous exchange?

They posses alveolar outpouchings in their walls

22

What separates the alveoli and the blood?

Epithelial lining of alveolus, basement membrane, and endothelial cell of capillary wall

23

What are the two types of alveolar cells (alvelocytes)?

Type 1 - simple squamous
Type 2- cuboidal

24

What are the functions of type 1 and 2 alvelocytes?

type 1- exchange
type 2- produce surfactant

25

What cell other then alveolocytes can be found in the alveolars?

Macrophages

26

What is a bundle of bronchus, artery and vein called?

A bronchovascular bundle

27

What arteries supply the lungs?

Bronchial arteries from aorta

28

What drains the lungs?

Bronchial veins into azygous

29

What innervates the lungs?

Pulmonary plexus from the vagus

30

What can a normal, increased rate, increased depth, increased effort and absence of breathing be called?

Normal- eupnoea
Increased rate- tachypnoea
Increased depth- hypernoea
Effort- dyspnoea
Absence- apnoea