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Flashcards in Respiratory Chapter Deck (72):
1

What are 3 functions of the respiratory system?

-provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration
-remove the waste product carbon dioxide
-help to maintain acid-base balance.

2

What are 3 non-vital functions of the respiratory system?

-speech production
- sensing odors
-straining during coughing

3

The___includes structures and organs not directly related to gas exchange

Conducting Zone

4

Gas exchange occurs in the__

respiratory zone

5

What are the major functions of the conducting zone?

-provide a route for incoming and outgoing air
-remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air
-warm and humidify the incoming air

6

The___consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions

external nose

7

The___ is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows.

root

8

The__ is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose.

bridge

9

The__ is the length of the nose.

dorsum nasi

10

The__ is the tip of the nose

apex

11

the nostrils are formed by the__

alae

12

A___ is a cartilaginous structure that forms the lateral side of each naris

ala

13

The___is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.

Philtrum

14

___is the name of the nostril opening

NAris

15

the superior and middle conchae are portions of the ___

ethmoid bone

16

What is the function of the superior inferior and middle conchae?

they increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and disrupt air flow as it enters the nose. This disruption of air flow causes it to bounce along the epithelium where it is cleaned and warmed.

17

What function do the conchae and the meatus have in common?

The function to conserve and trap water to prevent dehydration of the nasal epithelium during exhalation

18

What are the hard and soft palate made of respectively?

The hard palate is made of bone
The soft palate is made up of muscle tissue

19

What are paranasal sinuses, what is their function?

Paranasal sinuses are air containing spaces within nasal bones that help to warm and humidify incoming air

20

The conchae, meatuses, and paranasal sinuses are lined by_______composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

respiratory epithelium

21

During cold weather why do you get a runny nose?

The cilia of respiratory epithelium is slowed by cold air, which leads to an accumulation of mucus which can lead to a runny nose

22

Capillaries located just beneath the nasal epithelium warm the air by_____

convection

23

The____ is a tube formed by skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nasal cavities

pharynx

24

What is the function of the nasopharynx?

flanked by the conchae of the nasal cavity, the function of the nasopharynx is as an airway

25

A____ also called an adenoid, is an aggregate of lymphoid reticular tissue similar to a lymph node that lies at the superior portion of the nasopharynx.

pharyngeal tonsil

26

Why do colds lead to ear infections?

The auditory (Eustachian) Tubes open into the nasopharynx, if a person has a cold then it is more than likely that the infection can lead to this opening as well

27

The___is a passageway for both food and air

Oropharynx

28

The____is the opening at the connection between the oral cavity and the oropharynx.

fauces

29

As the nasopharynx becomes the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to_____

stratified squamous epithelium

30

What two tonsils are in the oropharynx

palatine tonsil and lingual tonsils

31

The_____is a cartilaginous structure inferior to the laryngopharynx that connects the pharynx to the trachea

larynx

32

What is the function of the larynx?

It regulates the volume of air that enters and exits the lungs

33

What 3 cartilage pieces form the larynx?

-thyroid cartilage (anterior)
-epiglottis (superior)
-cricoid cartilage (inferior)

34

The thyroid cartilage consists of the______, or “Adam’s apple,” which tends to be more prominent in males.

laryngeal prominence

35

What 3 smaller cartilages attach to the vocal cords in the larynx?

the arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms—attach to the epiglottis and the vocal cords and muscle that help move the vocal cords to produce speech.

36

The___ is a very flexible piece of elastic cartilage that covers the opening of the trachea

epiglottis

37

The___composed of the vestibular folds, the true vocal cords, and the space between these folds

glottis

38

___or false vocal cord, is one of a pair of folded sections of mucous membrane

Vestibular Folds

39

___is one of the white, membranous folds attached by muscle to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx on their outer edges. The inner edges of the true vocal cords are free, allowing oscillation to produce sound

True Vocal Cord

40

What creates a deeper voice in men?

The size of the membranous folds of the vocal cords tends to be larger in males than females giving them a deeper pitch or voice

41

The__is formed by 16 to 20 stacked, C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage that are connected by dense connective tissue. It extends from the larynx towards the lungs

Trachea

42

The trachealis muscle and elastic connective tissue together form the_____, a flexible membrane that closes the posterior surface of the trachea, connecting the C-shaped cartilages of the trachea

fibroelastic membrane

43

What is the function of the fibroelastic membrane?

The fibroelastic membrane allows the trachea to stretch and expand slightly during inhalation and exhalation, whereas the rings of cartilage provide structural support and prevent the trachea from collapsing.

44

The____is a raised structure in the bronchial tree that contains specialized nervous tissue that induces violent coughing if a foreign body, such as food, is present

carina

45

What is the main function of the bronchi?

The main function of the bronchi, like other conducting zone structures, is to provide a passageway for air to move into and out of each lung. In addition, the mucous membrane traps debris and pathogens.

46

Where does the respiratory zone begin?

. The respiratory zone begins where the terminal bronchioles join a respiratory bronchiole, the smallest type of bronchiole, which then leads to an alveolar duct, opening into a cluster of alveoli.

47

An___is a tube composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue, which opens into a cluster of alveoli.

alveolar duct

48

An ____ is one of the many small, grape-like sacs that are attached to the alveolar ducts.

alveolus

49

An ____is a cluster of many individual alveoli that are responsible for gas exchange

alveolar sac

50

This type of Alveoli cell makes up 97% of the cells in the alveolar wall and is highly permeable to gases

type 1 Alveolar cells

51

___ is interspersed among the type I cells and secretes pulmonary surfactant, a substance composed of phospholipids and proteins that reduces the surface tension of the alveoli.

type 2 alevolar cells

52

An ___ is a tube composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue, which opens into a cluster of alveoli

alveolar duct

53

An ___ is one of the many small, grape-like sacs that are attached to the alveolar ducts.

alveolus

54

An ___ is a cluster of many individual alveoli that are responsible for gas exchange

alveolar sac

55

What greatly increases the surface are for gas exchange in the alveolus?

the elastic walls

56

Alveoli are connected to their neighbors by _____, which help maintain equal air pressure throughout the alveoli and lung

alveolar pores

57

___squamous epithelial cells that are the major cell type in the alveolar wall; highly permeable to gases

type 1 Alveolar Cell

58

____cuboidal epithelial cells that are the minor cell type in the alveolar wall; secrete pulmonary surfactant

type 2 Alveolar Cell

59

___is an artery that arises from the pulmonary trunk and carries deoxygenated, arterial blood to the alveoli

Pulmonary Artery

60

Once the blood is oxygenated in the lungs, it drains from the alveoli by way of multiple pulmonary veins, which exit the lungs through the___

hilum

61

The parasympathetic system causes ___

bronchoconstriction

62

the sympathetic nervous system stimulates ____

bronchodilation

63

The______ is a region on the lung root formed by the entrance of the nerves at the hilum. The nerves then follow the bronchi in the lungs and branch to innervate muscle fibers, glands, and blood vessels.

pulmonary plexus

64

What are the two major functions of the pleura of the lungs?

They produce pleural fluid (lubricates surface)
-create cavities that separate the major organs

65

A section of the lung that receives its own tertiary bronchus is called the ________

bronchopulmonary segment

66

The ________ circulation picks up oxygen for cellular use and drops off carbon dioxide for removal from the body.

respiratory

67

Compare and Contrast Right and Left lung

The right lung consists of three lobes and is shorter than the left lung, due to the position of the liver underneath it. The left lung consist of two lobes and is longer and narrower than the right lung. The left lung has a concave region on the mediastinal surface called the cardiac notch that allows space for the heart.

68

___ is the act of breathing, which can be described as the movement of air into and out of the lungs

Pulmonary Ventilation

69

The major mechanisms that drive pulmonary ventilation are:

air pressure within the alveoli, called intra-alveolar pressure (Palv); and the pressure within the pleural cavity, called intrapleural pressure (Pip).

70

___is an increased depth and rate of ventilation to meet an increase in oxygen demand as might be seen in exercise or disease, particularly diseases that target the respiratory or digestive tracts.

Hyperapnea

71

__ is an increased ventilation rate that is independent of the cellular oxygen needs and leads to abnormally low blood carbon dioxide levels and high (alkaline) blood pH.

Hyperventilation

72

What occurs at high altitude?

Although the proportion of oxygen relative to gases in the atmosphere remains at 21 percent, its partial pressure decreases. As a result, it is more difficult for a body to achieve the same level of oxygen saturation at high altitude than at low altitude, due to lower atmospheric pressure.