Flashcards in Respiratory Chapter Deck (72):
What are 3 functions of the respiratory system?
-provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration
-remove the waste product carbon dioxide
-help to maintain acid-base balance.
What are 3 non-vital functions of the respiratory system?
- sensing odors
-straining during coughing
The___includes structures and organs not directly related to gas exchange
Gas exchange occurs in the__
What are the major functions of the conducting zone?
-provide a route for incoming and outgoing air
-remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air
-warm and humidify the incoming air
The___consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions
The___ is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows.
The__ is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose.
The__ is the length of the nose.
The__ is the tip of the nose
the nostrils are formed by the__
A___ is a cartilaginous structure that forms the lateral side of each naris
The___is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.
___is the name of the nostril opening
the superior and middle conchae are portions of the ___
What is the function of the superior inferior and middle conchae?
they increase the surface area of the nasal cavity and disrupt air flow as it enters the nose. This disruption of air flow causes it to bounce along the epithelium where it is cleaned and warmed.
What function do the conchae and the meatus have in common?
The function to conserve and trap water to prevent dehydration of the nasal epithelium during exhalation
What are the hard and soft palate made of respectively?
The hard palate is made of bone
The soft palate is made up of muscle tissue
What are paranasal sinuses, what is their function?
Paranasal sinuses are air containing spaces within nasal bones that help to warm and humidify incoming air
The conchae, meatuses, and paranasal sinuses are lined by_______composed of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
During cold weather why do you get a runny nose?
The cilia of respiratory epithelium is slowed by cold air, which leads to an accumulation of mucus which can lead to a runny nose
Capillaries located just beneath the nasal epithelium warm the air by_____
The____ is a tube formed by skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of the nasal cavities
What is the function of the nasopharynx?
flanked by the conchae of the nasal cavity, the function of the nasopharynx is as an airway
A____ also called an adenoid, is an aggregate of lymphoid reticular tissue similar to a lymph node that lies at the superior portion of the nasopharynx.
Why do colds lead to ear infections?
The auditory (Eustachian) Tubes open into the nasopharynx, if a person has a cold then it is more than likely that the infection can lead to this opening as well
The___is a passageway for both food and air
The____is the opening at the connection between the oral cavity and the oropharynx.
As the nasopharynx becomes the oropharynx, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium to_____
stratified squamous epithelium
What two tonsils are in the oropharynx
palatine tonsil and lingual tonsils
The_____is a cartilaginous structure inferior to the laryngopharynx that connects the pharynx to the trachea
What is the function of the larynx?
It regulates the volume of air that enters and exits the lungs
What 3 cartilage pieces form the larynx?
-thyroid cartilage (anterior)
-cricoid cartilage (inferior)
The thyroid cartilage consists of the______, or “Adam’s apple,” which tends to be more prominent in males.
What 3 smaller cartilages attach to the vocal cords in the larynx?
the arytenoids, corniculates, and cuneiforms—attach to the epiglottis and the vocal cords and muscle that help move the vocal cords to produce speech.
The___ is a very flexible piece of elastic cartilage that covers the opening of the trachea
The___composed of the vestibular folds, the true vocal cords, and the space between these folds
___or false vocal cord, is one of a pair of folded sections of mucous membrane
___is one of the white, membranous folds attached by muscle to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages of the larynx on their outer edges. The inner edges of the true vocal cords are free, allowing oscillation to produce sound
True Vocal Cord
What creates a deeper voice in men?
The size of the membranous folds of the vocal cords tends to be larger in males than females giving them a deeper pitch or voice
The__is formed by 16 to 20 stacked, C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage that are connected by dense connective tissue. It extends from the larynx towards the lungs
The trachealis muscle and elastic connective tissue together form the_____, a flexible membrane that closes the posterior surface of the trachea, connecting the C-shaped cartilages of the trachea
What is the function of the fibroelastic membrane?
The fibroelastic membrane allows the trachea to stretch and expand slightly during inhalation and exhalation, whereas the rings of cartilage provide structural support and prevent the trachea from collapsing.
The____is a raised structure in the bronchial tree that contains specialized nervous tissue that induces violent coughing if a foreign body, such as food, is present
What is the main function of the bronchi?
The main function of the bronchi, like other conducting zone structures, is to provide a passageway for air to move into and out of each lung. In addition, the mucous membrane traps debris and pathogens.
Where does the respiratory zone begin?
. The respiratory zone begins where the terminal bronchioles join a respiratory bronchiole, the smallest type of bronchiole, which then leads to an alveolar duct, opening into a cluster of alveoli.
An___is a tube composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue, which opens into a cluster of alveoli.
An ____ is one of the many small, grape-like sacs that are attached to the alveolar ducts.
An ____is a cluster of many individual alveoli that are responsible for gas exchange
This type of Alveoli cell makes up 97% of the cells in the alveolar wall and is highly permeable to gases
type 1 Alveolar cells
___ is interspersed among the type I cells and secretes pulmonary surfactant, a substance composed of phospholipids and proteins that reduces the surface tension of the alveoli.
type 2 alevolar cells
An ___ is a tube composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue, which opens into a cluster of alveoli
An ___ is one of the many small, grape-like sacs that are attached to the alveolar ducts.
An ___ is a cluster of many individual alveoli that are responsible for gas exchange
What greatly increases the surface are for gas exchange in the alveolus?
the elastic walls
Alveoli are connected to their neighbors by _____, which help maintain equal air pressure throughout the alveoli and lung
___squamous epithelial cells that are the major cell type in the alveolar wall; highly permeable to gases
type 1 Alveolar Cell
____cuboidal epithelial cells that are the minor cell type in the alveolar wall; secrete pulmonary surfactant
type 2 Alveolar Cell
___is an artery that arises from the pulmonary trunk and carries deoxygenated, arterial blood to the alveoli
Once the blood is oxygenated in the lungs, it drains from the alveoli by way of multiple pulmonary veins, which exit the lungs through the___
The parasympathetic system causes ___
the sympathetic nervous system stimulates ____
The______ is a region on the lung root formed by the entrance of the nerves at the hilum. The nerves then follow the bronchi in the lungs and branch to innervate muscle fibers, glands, and blood vessels.
What are the two major functions of the pleura of the lungs?
They produce pleural fluid (lubricates surface)
-create cavities that separate the major organs
A section of the lung that receives its own tertiary bronchus is called the ________
The ________ circulation picks up oxygen for cellular use and drops off carbon dioxide for removal from the body.
Compare and Contrast Right and Left lung
The right lung consists of three lobes and is shorter than the left lung, due to the position of the liver underneath it. The left lung consist of two lobes and is longer and narrower than the right lung. The left lung has a concave region on the mediastinal surface called the cardiac notch that allows space for the heart.
___ is the act of breathing, which can be described as the movement of air into and out of the lungs
The major mechanisms that drive pulmonary ventilation are:
air pressure within the alveoli, called intra-alveolar pressure (Palv); and the pressure within the pleural cavity, called intrapleural pressure (Pip).
___is an increased depth and rate of ventilation to meet an increase in oxygen demand as might be seen in exercise or disease, particularly diseases that target the respiratory or digestive tracts.
__ is an increased ventilation rate that is independent of the cellular oxygen needs and leads to abnormally low blood carbon dioxide levels and high (alkaline) blood pH.