1st gen H1 blockers
Clinical uses of 1st gen H1 blockers
Toxicity of H1 blockers
2nd generation H1 blockers
uses of 2nd gen H1 blockers
Toxicity of 2nd gen H1 blockers
-far less sedating than 1st gen due to decreased entry into the CNS
an expectorant that thins respiratory secretions
a mucolytic that can loosen mucous plugs in CF pts; also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose
-antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors)
-codeine analog with mild opioid effect
-Nalone given for overdose
Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine are...
sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nasal decongestants
Use of Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine
-reduce hyperemia, edema and nasal congestion
-open obstructed eustachian tubes
Toxicity of pseudoephrine and phenylephrine
-CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephrine)
Bronchoconstriction is mediated by...
inflammatory processes and parasympathetic tone.
beta-2 agonist that relaxes bronchial muscle used during acute asthma attack
Salmeterol and Formoterol are...
long acting beta-2 agonists used for asthma prophylaxis; side effects include tremor and arrhythmia
Theophylline (Methylxanthine) causes...
bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase leading to increased cAMP levels due to decrased cAMP hydrolysis.
Usage of Theophylline is limited by...
its narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity).
Theophylline is metabolized by...
CYP450 and blocks the actions of adenosine.
competitive block of muscarinic receptors that prevents bronchoconstriction; used for COPD
Beclomethasone and Fluticasone are...
corticosteroids that inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines; they inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents
Corticosteroids (Beclomethasone, Fluticasone) are first line therapy for...
block leukotriene receptors; esp good for aspirin induced asthma
5-lipooxygenase pathway inhibitor; blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes
monoclonal anti-IgE antibody; binds unbound serum IgE and blocks its binding to FcepsilonRI
Omalizumab is used in...
allergic asthma resistant to inahled steroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists
muscarinic receptor agonist; used in bronchial provocation channel to help diagnose asthma
antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance; used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN