Respiratory Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory Drugs Deck (27):
1

1st gen H1 blockers

-Diphenhydramine
-dimenhydrinate
-chlorpheniramine

2

Clinical uses of 1st gen H1 blockers

-allergy
-motion sickness
-sleep aid

3

Toxicity of H1 blockers

-sedation
-antimuscarinic
-anti-alpha-adrenergic

4

2nd generation H1 blockers

-Loratadine
-fexofenadine
-desloratadine
-cetirizine

5

uses of 2nd gen H1 blockers

-allergy

6

Toxicity of 2nd gen H1 blockers

-far less sedating than 1st gen due to decreased entry into the CNS

7

Guaifenesin

an expectorant that thins respiratory secretions

8

N-acetylcysteine is...

a mucolytic that can loosen mucous plugs in CF pts; also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose

9

Dextromethorphan

-antitussive (antagonizes NMDA glutamate receptors)
-codeine analog with mild opioid effect
-Nalone given for overdose

10

Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine are...

sympathomimetic alpha-agonistic nasal decongestants

11

Use of Pseudoephrine and phenylephrine

-reduce hyperemia, edema and nasal congestion
-open obstructed eustachian tubes

12

Toxicity of pseudoephrine and phenylephrine

-HTN
-CNS stimulation/anxiety (pseudoephrine)

13

Bronchoconstriction is mediated by...

inflammatory processes and parasympathetic tone.

14

Albuterol

beta-2 agonist that relaxes bronchial muscle used during acute asthma attack

15

Salmeterol and Formoterol are...

long acting beta-2 agonists used for asthma prophylaxis; side effects include tremor and arrhythmia

16

Theophylline (Methylxanthine) causes...

bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase leading to increased cAMP levels due to decrased cAMP hydrolysis.

17

Usage of Theophylline is limited by...

its narrow therapeutic index (cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity).

18

Theophylline is metabolized by...

CYP450 and blocks the actions of adenosine.

19

Ipratropium

competitive block of muscarinic receptors that prevents bronchoconstriction; used for COPD

20

Beclomethasone and Fluticasone are...

corticosteroids that inhibit the synthesis of virtually all cytokines; they inactivate NF-kappaB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha and other inflammatory agents

21

Corticosteroids (Beclomethasone, Fluticasone) are first line therapy for...

chronic asthma.

22

Montelukast, Zafirkulast

block leukotriene receptors; esp good for aspirin induced asthma

23

Zileuton

5-lipooxygenase pathway inhibitor; blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes

24

Omalizumab

monoclonal anti-IgE antibody; binds unbound serum IgE and blocks its binding to FcepsilonRI

25

Omalizumab is used in...

allergic asthma resistant to inahled steroids and long-acting beta-2 agonists

26

Methacholine

muscarinic receptor agonist; used in bronchial provocation channel to help diagnose asthma

27

Bosentan

antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance; used to treat pulmonary arterial HTN