respiratory infections ACUTE PHARYNGITIS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in respiratory infections ACUTE PHARYNGITIS Deck (26)
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1

acute infection of the oropharynx or nasopharynx is called what

acute pharyngitis (strep throat)

2

what specific group causes strep throat/ acute pharyngitis

group A Beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS)

3

what age group is most susceptible to GABHS/ strep throat

children 5-15

4

when is strep throat most common?

winter and early spring

5

what is the most common cause of strep throat

group A B-hemolytic streptococci

6

what are some severe conditions that may occur if strep throat is not treated appropriately

Acute glomerulonephritis
Rheumatic Fever
Mastoiditis
Peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess
Otitis media
Reactive arthritis
Necrotizing fasciitis

7

What Viruses etiology can cause pharyngitis

Rhinovirus
Influenza
Cornonavirus
Herpes simplex virus
Adenovirus
Parainfluenza virus
Epstein-Barr virus

8

describe the pathophysiology of transmitting GABHS

1. asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers
2. carrier has alteration in host immunity
3. bacteria migrate and cause infection

9

what type of test is given to diagnose GABHS and then start treating for antibiotics

1. rapid antigen detection tests
2. cultures (Gold standard but take longer)

10

what is a problem with over testing people for strep throat

many people are carriers and do not need antibiotic treatment since there is no infection

11

what is the preferred therapy for treating GABHS

penicillin V PO for 10 days
or
1 dose of Penacillin G benzathine

12

what should be used for patients with penicillin allergies for GABHS

1. cephalexin
2. cefadroxil
3. clindamycin
4. azithromycin
5. clarithromycin

13

if patient remains symptomatic after antibiotics when can throat cultures be done

2 to 7 days after completion of antibiotics

14

what categorizes influenza as influenza type A

influenzatype A is categorized based on surface antigens:
hemagglutinin (H1, H2, H3)
neuraminidase (N1, N2)

15

what type of flue is responsible for the regular, seasonal epidemics of the flu

influenza type A

16

what type of flu is associated with sporadic outbreaks, particularly among residents of long-term care facilities

influenza type B

17

how is the flu transmitted
What is the incubation time
How long are people infectious

1. respiratory droplets go from one person to another
2. incubation period from 1-7 days, 2 days on average
3. adults are infectious within 1 day before until 7 days after illness. children can be infectious for 10 days.

18

how is the flu diagnosed

rapid antigen test
RT-PCR test (point of care test)
viral cultures (uncommon)

19

what are the best ways for prevention of the flu

1. vaccination
2. hand hygiene
3. respiratory etiquette
4. contact avoidance
5. chemoprophylaxis

20

people younger than what age should not receive a flu vaccine

less than 6 months
all others should be vaccinated annually

21

what are the age groups for the trivalent vaccine?
for the live-attenuated flu vaccine

trivalent = 6 months or older
live attenuated = 2-49 years old

22

what type of vaccine can immunocompromised individuals have for the flu

trivalent only, not live-attenuated

23

what flu vaccine is not recommended for pregnancy

live attenuated is not recommended
trivalent only

24

how is live-attenuated vaccine administered

intranasally

25

how was the flublock vaccine made?
what is the age range

with insect vectors, no live attenuated parts; only good for folks 18-49

26

what are the neuraminidase inhibitors

Tamiflu - oseltamivir
Relenza - zanamivir