Respiratory: Lower respiratory tract infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory: Lower respiratory tract infections Deck (14):

What are some of the common flora of the upper respiratory tract?

Viridans streptococci
Neisseria spp


What are some defences of the respiratory tract to prevent infection?

- muco-ciliary clearance (nasal hairs, ciliated columnar epithelium of resp tract)
- cough and sneezing reflex
- temperature
- alveolar macrophages
- lymphoid follicles of pharynx and tonsils


What are some common upper respiratory tract infections?

Rhinitis (common cold), epiglottis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media.
Most commonly caused by viruses eg rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza


What is acute bronchitis?

Inflammation of the medium sized airways often in smokers. Get cough, fever, increased sputum and shortness of breath.
Caused by viruses, s pneumoniae, H influenzea


What is pneumonia?

Inflammation of the lung alveoli causing exudation of fibrin rich fluid and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages


How can pneumonia be classified?

- by clinical setting eg community or hospital acquired
- by presentation eg acute or chronic
- by lung pathology eg lobar, bronchopneumonia (patchy), interstitial pneumonia
- by organism


What are the causative organisms of community acquired pneumonia?

85% typical eg s pneumoniae, h influenzae
15% atypical eg legionella (from travel)


What are the symptoms of pneumonia?

Shortness of breath, fever, pleuritic chest pain, malaise, nausea, vomiting
Cough +/- sputum (may be yellow or rusty)


What would you expect to find when examining a lung with pneumonia?

Dullness to percussion
Bronchial breathing


How do you assess the severity of pneumonia?

Use the CURB 65 score
Measure of severity which is used to decide whether to admit pt to hospital and manage as severe


Which antibiotics are used for community acquired pneumonia?

Mild/moderate: amoxicillin or
doxycycline or erythromycin

Co-amoxiclav and either clarithromycin or doxycycline (effective in atypical organisms)


What are the causative organisms of hospital acquired pneumonia?

staph aureus, pseudomonas, h influenzae


Which antibiotics are used for hospital acquired pneumonia?

First use co-amoxiclav


What is aspiration pneumonia and who is at risk?

Aspiration of exogenous material into the respiratory tract
It is common in pts with neurological dysphagia, epilepsy, alcoholics, drowning
At risk groups are nursing home residents and drug overdosers

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