Respiratory Micro- Debiel/Zimmer Flashcards Preview

CRRAB II- FINAL > Respiratory Micro- Debiel/Zimmer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Micro- Debiel/Zimmer Deck (88):
1

What is the point of the turbinate bones (Baffle plates)?

Force air to swirl as it passes over them, causing potential pathogens to make contact with nasal mucus

2

Are bacteria or viruses more common in causing upper respiratory tract infecitons?

VIRUSES! By far!!

3

What is the mucociliary escalator?
What are its 2 basic parts?

covers most of the bronchi, bronchioles, and nose

1. Mucus-producing goblet cells
2. Ciliated epithelium

4

What do the ciliated epithelium do?

Continually beat, pushing mucus up and out into the thorat

5

Describe the pathogenesis of rhinovirus and how that can lead to a bacterial sinusitis

-virus binds to ICAM-1 on upper respiratory epithelial cells
-Replicates inside cells and spreads to surrounding tissues without killing it
-Local inflammation causes exudate and increased ICAM-1 expression
-Actually ENHANCES ability of virus to spread and causes further infection
-Exudate produces blocks air passageways which can lead to bacterial sinusitis or otitis media

6

What is sinusitis?

A bacterial secondary infection (a complication of a viral infection)

7

Common cold lasts what duration?

One week or less!

8

What are the two common causes of sinusitis?

1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
2. Haemophilus influenzae

9

In what age group is Strep Pyogenes the most common cause of pharyngitis?

age 5-15 strep pyogenes is the most common cause, followed by viruses

10

Describe the pathogenesis of rhinovirus and how that can lead to a bacterial sinusitis

-virus binds to ICAM-1 on upper respiratory epithelial cells
-Replicates inside cells and spreads to surrounding tissues without killing it
-Local inflammation causes exudate and increased ICAM-1 expression
-Actually ENHANCES ability of virus to spread and causes further infection
-Exudate produces blocks air passageways which can lead to bacterial sinusitis or otitis media

11

What are the the 2 important bacterial infections for Pharyngitis?

S. pyogenes
C. diptheriae

12

What bug causes pneumonia in kids and a moderately severe common cold in adults?

Paramyxovirus (Parainfluenza virus)

13

Describe the viral characteristics of Rhinovirus?

RNA
Icosahedral nucleocapsid
Nonenveloped
+ssRNA nonsegmented (class IV)

14

What are the most common causes of aseptic meningitis?

Coxsackievirus
Echovirus
Mumps virus

15

When do symptoms reach their peak post-infection?

2-5 days

16

At what point are cells completely regenerated post Rhinovirus infection?

14 days

17

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in young children?
What does this cause in adults?

Paramyxovirus (Parainfluenza)

Moderately severe Common Cold

18

Describe the viral characteristics of Rhinovirus?

RNA
Icosahedral nucleocapsid
+ssRNA (class IV)

19

What are the 2 most common causes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis?

Strep pneumo
H. influenzae

20

What are the most common causes of palm and sole rash?

Syphillis
RMSF
Coxsackievirus

21

What are the most common causes of conjunctivitis?

H. influenzae
Adenovirus
S. pneumo

22

What is the only DNA virus that causes Common Cold?

Adenovirus

23

What is the treatment for bacterial Rhinosinusitis?

Amoxicillin or azithromycin

24

What are the 2 most common causes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis?

Strep pneumo
H. influenzae

25

What is the most common cause of fungal Sinusitis?

Aspergillus fumigatus

26

How do you treat fungal sinusitis?

Mechanical removal of fungal pathogen

27

If a patient has a fever greater than 102 and facial pain, are you thinking viral or bacterial?

BACTERIAL

28

What is the treatment for bacterial Rhinosinusitis?

Amoxicillin or azithromycin

29

Treatment of strep pyogenes pharyngitis should start within what time frame of first signs of infection?

9 days

30

What are the common findings in patients with viral and bacterial causes of pharyngitis?

Fever
Sore throat
Edema
Hyperemia of tonsils and pharyngeal walls

31

What symptoms strongly suggest a viral cause of Pharyngitis?

Conjunctivitis
Cough
Hoarseness
Inflammation of mucus membrane
Diarrhea

32

What symptoms may be present if someone has Strep pyogenes pharyngitis (strep throat)?

Headache
Nausea
Vomiting
Abdominal pain

33

What is required if you suspect S. pyogenes pharyngitis?

Rapid strep test

34

Treatment of strep pyogenes pharyngitis should start within what time frame of first signs of infection?

9 days

35

What is the only cause of pharyngitis that should be treated?

Streptococcus pyogenes because it can lead to several serious complications.

36

What is the most common cause of pharyngitis? (broad)

Virus

37

If a patient presents with bumps and film on their tongue along with a skin rash, what are you thinking?

Scarlet Fever

38

What is Strep pyogenes capsule made out of?
What does it do for the bacteria?

Hyaluronic Acid (HA)
Prevents phagocytosis by macrophages

39

What 2 virulence factors does strep pyogenes use for invasion?

Protease
Hyaluronidase

40

How does Diptheria Toxin work?

Part B binds to cells to allow its entry into an endocytic vacuole.
The vacuole acidifies.
Then the active part A gets into the cells and screws up translation so the cells die!

41

What is the major treatment for S. pyogenes pharyngitis?

Penicillin
Erythromycin if allergic to penicillin

42

What can certain strains of S. pyogenes secrete to cause Scarlet Fever?

Exotoxins:
ssa, speA, speC
These are Superantigens!

43

If a patient presents with bumps and film on their tongue along with a skin rash, what are you thinking?

Scarlet Fever

44

Is strep pyogenes catalase + or -?

NEGATIVE

45

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in young children?

RSV

46

How does Diptheria Toxin work?

Part B binds to cells to allow its entry into an endocytic vacuole.
The vacuole acidifies.
Then the active part A gets into the cells and screws up translation so the cells die!

47

Describe the bacterial properties of C. diptheriae.

Gram + Bacilli

48

What is the signature symptom of Croup?

Bark-like cough

49

When do croup symptoms peak?
When do they resolve?

peak 3-5 days
resolve 4-7 days

50

What does RSV have that causes cell membranes of nearby cells to fuse?
What do you call the result of multiple cells fusing?

F protein

Syncytium

51

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in young children?

RSV

52

What causes Life-threatning Epiglottitis?
Looking for 2 things

Beta Hemolytic strep
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

53

Common cold symptoms.

Nasal discharge
mild sore throat
cough
LACK OF FEVER (children may have fever)

54

What are 3 classic components of sinusitis?

FEVER
Purulent nasal discharge
Sinus Tenderness

55

Most common cause of pharyngitis in young kids and adults?

viruses

56

Most common cause of pharyngitis in kids age 5-15?

Strep pyogenes

57

What is the most serious risk of Laryngitis/Croup?

Airway obstruction

58

2nd most common cause of common cold?

Coronavirus

59

What normally causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome?

Coronavirus
(couldn't you use a Corona right about now?;))

60

Describe the pathogenesis of Influenza C causing the common cold.

Viral Hemagglutinin A contacts the mucosas sialic acid and is endocytosed.
Viral neurominidase (NA) cleaves HA bound to sialic acid and permits viral spread

Immune system produces IL-1 and IFN-gamma in response!

61

What is a cause of common cold and also causes 50 % of cases of viral myocarditis?

Cocsackie B

62

Strep pyogenes: 4 major virulence factors

Streptokinase (plasminogen-->plasmin)
M protein (resists phagocytosis)
Hyaluronidase (breaks down connective tissue)
DNase (breaks down DNA)

63

What antibodies can you look for in a person with strep pyogenes infection?

Anti-Streptolysin O antibodies

64

Black bacteria makes you think of what bacteria?

Diptheria!

65

What does Strep pyogenes use for attachment? 3 things

M protein
Lipoteichoic acid
Fibronectin binding protein (protein F)

66

Why is strep pyogenes not phagocytosed?

Hyaluronic Acid capsule

67

What does adenovirus use to bind mucosa cells?

Hemagluttinin A

68

2nd most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in COPD patients?

Moraxella catarrhalis

69

Gray pseudomembrane
Airway obstruction
What bug ya thinking?

Corynebacterium diptheriae

70

What does C. diptheriae ribosylate to prevent protein synthesis?

EF-2

71

What 2 bacteria did we learn that are Quellung +?

Strep pneumo
Hib

72

What are the 2 major virulence factors of RSV?

G protein-attachment
F protein-Synctium

73

What bugs forms a syncytium?

RSV

74

What viruses bind using Hemagluttinin A?

Influenza C
Adenovirus
Parainfluenza

75

What cleaves HA from sialic acid?

Neuroaminidase

76

Treatment for C. diptheriae?

Antitoxin
Penicillin (or erythromycin)

77

What condition shares a similarity in symptomology with RSV?
What is the symptom?

Asthma
Wheezing

78

What bugs have an IgA protease?

Strep pneumo
Hib

79

MOST COMMON CAUSE OF EPIGLOTTITIS

H influenza type b

80

MOST COMMON CAUSE OF CROUP

Parainfluenza virus

81

Gram + Bacilli
Aerobic
Black colonies on potassium tellurite

C diptheriae

82

Tx for Hib?

Close contacts of infected person?

3rd Gen cephalosporins
(Hib vaccine for prevention)
Rifampin for close contacts

83

Gram +
Diplococci
alpha hemolytic

Strep pneumo

84

Helical
Enveloped
Class IV

Coronavirus

85

Nonenveloped
Icosahedral
Class IV

Rhinovirus

86

Tongue paralysis in young immigrant girl

DIPTHERIA!

87

Gram - coccobacilli

H flu

88

Factors V and X required for growth

H flu