Respiratory Part III STUDY FINAL Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Part II > Respiratory Part III STUDY FINAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Part III STUDY FINAL Deck (44):

What is asthma?

asthma is a chronic inflammation disorder caused by obstruction in the airways leading to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and a cough


What is a key characteristic of asthma?

A key characteristic trait of asthma is episodic and reversible nature of the airway obstruction


Common signs of asthma

tight chest


What are the four main triggers for asthma attacks?



What are some of the key roles of nurses when preventing and controlling asthmatic attacks in clients?

- pharmacotherapy
- identifying and avoiding or eliminating triggers
- continual assessment of asthma and control
- regular check-ins


airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness



What are the pathophysiological features of asthma?

- Inflammation of bronchial mucosa

- Bronchospasms

- excess production of viscious mucus

-edema of bronchial mucosa


What is COPD?

a respiratory disorder caused largely by smoking and characterized by progressive, reversible airflow obstruction. It is increasingly difficult to breath and includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema


What at the symptoms of COPD and how often is their onset?

SOB, dyspnea, difficultly breathing with an insidious (gradual) onset and progressive


What is emphysema?

emphysema is when the alveoli of the lungs are damaged making it harder to breath


What is the primary cause of COPD?

smoking 80-90%


What changes in the lungs occur due to smoking?

- nicotine stimulates an inflammatory response

-hyperplasia of goblet cells

- reduces ciliary activity and accelerates loss of ciliated cells


lung parenchyma consists of these two structures of the lungs

respiratory bronchioles and alveoli


What is COPD characterized by and what areas of the body does it affect?

chronic inflammation found in the airways, lung parenchyma, and pulmonary blood vessels


Why is the airflow limited during forced exhalation in COPD patients?

The airflow is limited during forced exhalation in COPD patients because of the loss of elastic recoil within the lungs


Disfunction of this lung structure leads to chronic cough and sputum production in COPD patients.



What is excess mucus production a result of in COPD patients?

Excess mucus production is a result of an increased number of mucus-secreting goblet cells and enlarged submucosal glands, which respond to irritants


What is the main characteristic of COPD and what does this do in the body in terms of oxygen?

the main characteristic of COPD is the inability to expire air on exhalation. This occurs as the peripheral airways get blocked, trapping air in the lungs, resulting in hyper-expandsion of the chest and barrel-shaped

lungs are over-inflated


The diagnosis of COPD is confirmed by this spirometry ratio level.

FEV1/FVC of < 70%


What is Cur pulmonale?

Cur pulmonale is hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, with or without heart failure, that results from pulmonary hypertension


What is chronic bronchitis?

Chronic bronchitis is the presence of chronic productive cough for 3 months in 2 successive years. It is characterized by swollen airways and a build up of mucus making it difficult to breathe


What is the medical treatment for people with COPD?

oxygen therapy
smoking cessation
pursed-lip breathing techy


What is cytic fibrosis?

cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by altered function of the exocrine gland involving primarily the lungs, the pancreas, and the sweat glands causing a obstruction of the airways with mucus


What is pneumothorax? What the S&S?

pneumothorax is a collection of free air in the chest cavity (thoracic cavity) that causes the lung to collapse

Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath


Which respiratory illness is pneumothorax most commonly seen in?

Cystic fibrosis, COPD


What is one way of testing someone for cystic fibrosis?

sending electric currents through their sweat glands


What do bronchodilators do for the lungs?

Bronchodilators relax smooth muscle, which causes dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles that are narrowed, enhancing their airway


What are the three classifications of bronchodilators?

b-adrenergic agonists
xanthine derivatives


What neurotransmitter causes bronchial constriction and narrowing of the airways?

Acetylcholine (ATCH)


How do anticholinergic drugs work?

Anticholingeric drugs bind to ACH receptors, preventing them from binding and constricting the airways. The drugs prevent broncho-constriction and the airways dilate.


What are the three major non-bronchodilating respiratory drugs?

1. leukotriene receptor antagonist
2. corticosteroids
3. mast cell stabilizer


What are leukotrienes and what effects do they have on the body?

They are substances that are released when exposed to an allergic trigger, such as dust or hair, that initiates a series of chemical reactions in the body.

Leukotrienes cause inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and mucus production and cause coughing, wheeling and SOB


What are the indications for using leukotriene-receptor antagonist drugs?

- prophylaxis and long-term treatment and prevention of asthma in adults and children

-NOT for the management of acute asthmatic attacks


What are corticosteroid drugs?

Corticosteroids are drugs that have anti-inflammatory properties that aid in the treatment of bronchospastic disorders to control the inflammatory response and persistent asthma


What is pneumothorax?

A pneumothorax is a collection of free air in the chest cavity (thoracic cavity) that causes the lung to collapse.


What are reliever drugs?

Reliever drugs: "rescue" medication used intermittently as required to ease asthma symptoms


What are controller drugs?

Controller drugs maintain therapy used on a daily basis


What are the most proficient and effective drugs for asthma?

corticosteroids because they are a powerful anti-inflammatory drug


What is a mast-cell stabilizer?

Mast cell stabilizers are non-sterodial anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit the IgE-mediated release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and suppress other inflammatory cells


What is the most effective drug for relieving acute bronchospasms and exacerbations of asthma?

Short-acting inhaled B-2 adrenergic agonists.


What is pursed-lip breathing and what type of patient would we use it on?

Pursed-lip breathing is a technique used for COPD patients that is meant to prolong exhalation and prevent bronchiolar collapse and air trapping


When performing pursed-lip breathing technique, how long should exhalation over inhalation be?

Exhalation should be three times the length of inhalation


What is the action of b-adrenergic drugs?

Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing


What are bronchospasms and what are they caused by?

Bronchospasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe