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Flashcards in Respiratory Pathology 4 Deck (28):
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What is atelectasis?

Incomplete expansion of the lung. Can be congenital or acquired

1

What are the four types of atelectasis?

Obstructive
Compression
Massive
Recumbencey

2

What is obstructive atelectasis?

Complete or segmental obstruction by inflammatory exudate, foreign bodies or tumours.
Ruminants only need segmental as they have poor collateral blood supply, dogs and cats need complete

3

What is compression atelectasis?

Cause d by pleural, intrathoracic, intrapulmonary space occupying lesions e.g hydro or haemothorax

4

What is massive atelectasis?

Complete lung collapse by pneumothorax

5

What is recumbency atelectasis?

Defective surfactant production

6

What type of emphysema do our spp get and what are the two types?

Secondary which causes distension of the alveoli and rupture of the walls-air bubbles.
Interstitial is common in cattle which causes bulbous emphysema

7

What are the 3 protective mechanisms against pulmonary oedema?

Intercellular junctions are highly permeable to seal off alveoli.
Interstitium of alveolar septa is lower pressure than the intra alveolar pressure
Interstitial pressure is more negative towards the fascia and airways

8

How does pulmonary oedema begin and what does it progress to?

Begins as interstitial oedema and progresses to alveolar oedema, once the interstitial compartment is overwhelmed

9

What are the 3 causes of pulmonary oedema?

Increased capillary or epithelial permeability (shock, toxins)
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Decreased plasma oncotic pressure

10

What type of haemorrhage is seen in horses?

Exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage

11

Why does infarction not usually follow embolism or thrombosis in the lung?

Supplied by both pulmonic and bronchial arteries and it has extensive collateral channels. Only occurs if the pulm circ is compromised

12

What causes pulmonary hypertension?

Increased resistance in the pulmonary vasculature or left to right shunts.

13

What is a sequelae of pulmonary hypertension ?

Coe pulmonale, r sided heart failure

14

Examples of neoplasia in the upper airway?

Carcinoma or adenocarcinoma
Lymphosarcoma

15

Examples of neoplasia of the lower airway?

Bronchial papilloma
Bronchioalveolar carcinoma

16

What agent causes Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis?

Jaagsiekte,

17

What is the gross pathology of sheep pulmonary adenomatosis?

Small firm white nodules to replacement by neoplasticism tissue. Metastasise to LNs

18

What are three examples of Metastatic tumours?

Mammary carcinoma in dog and cat
Uterine adenocarcinoma cattle
Malignant melanoma in horses

19

What is pneumothorax?

Air in the pleural cavity

20

What are hydro thorax, chylothorax and haemothorax examples of?

Non inflammatory pleural effusions.
Chylomicron rich lymph by trauma to the thoracic lymphatic duct (chylothorax) dorsal aspect of the thoracic aorta

21

What aw the five ways that inflammatory agents reach the pleura?

Extension pneumonia
Bloodstream
Trans diaphragmatic
Penetration of chest
Penetration of the oeasophagus or abdominal viscus

22

What are the two types of acute pleuritis?

Purulent and fibrinous

23

What is a chronic sequelae of pleuritis?

The visceral pleura become enveloped in a fibrinous blanket and pleural adhesions

24

What is pyothorax?

Puerile by effusion in the pleural space.

25

What is pyothorax caused by?

Streptococci in dogs.
P multocida in cats

26

What is an example of a degenerative pleural disease?

Pleural mineralisation in dogs with uraemia and vit D toxicity

27

What is mesothelioma?

Common in calves, thoracic effusion, multiple nodules.