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Flashcards in Respiratory Pharmacology Deck (16):
1

Describe the sympathetic innervation to the respiratory system

B2 -> bronchodilation through innervation to bronchial blood vessels and glands not bronchial smooth muscle

Increased cAMP, decreased Ca2+, reduces muscle contraction. This stimulates Ca2+ activated K+ channels -> hyperpolaristion, bronchodilation

2

Describe the parasympathetic innervation to the respiratory system

M3 bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion

3

Name two short acting B2 agonists

Salbutamol (Ventolin)
Terbutaline
(Duration of action 3-5hours)

4

Name two long acting B2 agonists

Salmeterol
Formoterol
(Duration of action 8-12hours)

5

What are the adverse effects of B2 agonists?

High doses inhaled can cause skeletal muscle tremor (B2 activity), they can also antagonise cardiac B1 receptors causing tachycardia and dysrhythmia, headaches, hypokalaemia

Caution in those with cardiac abnormalities
Do not give with B-blockers

6

Give two examples of methylxanthines

Theophylline
Aminophylline
(Narrow therapeutic window)

7

How do methylxanthines work?

Antagonist to adenosine receptors
Inhibit the breakdown of cAMP by phospohdiesterase
Increase cAMP -> decreased calcium leading to bronchodilation

8

What are the adverse effects of methylxanthines?

Psychomotor agitation, tachycardia, nausea, Vomitting

9

Name two muscarinic receptor antagonists

Ipratropium bromide (short-acting)
Tiotropium bromide (long-acting) (Spireva)

10

What are the adverse effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists?

Not well absorbed though the lungs, they don't discriminate between different muscarinic receptor subtypes, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention

11

Are there any considerations that need to be taken into account when prescribing IV aminophylline?

It has a narrow therapeutic window, so it needs to be carefully monitored, plasma level 10-20mg/L

12

What are the contraindications for the use of muscarinic receptor antagonists?

Use with caution in those with angle-closure glaucoma and BPH

13

Give three examples of inhaled steroids

How do they work?

Beclomethasone (Qvar), budesonide, fluticasone

They increase airway calibre by decreasing bronchial inflammation

14

What are the side effects of inhaled steroids?

Cough, oral thrush, unpleasant taste, hoarseness of voice

15

Give examples of PO/IV steroids

Prednisolone (PO/IV)
Hydrocortisone (IV/IM)
Dexamethasone (PO/IV)
Triamcinolone (IM)

16

What are the common side effects of PO/IV steroids?

Adrenal suppression (>3 weeks, do not stop abruptly), hyperglycaemia, indigestion