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Flashcards in respiratory - phyanalab Deck (90):
1

Respiration: Three Major Steps

Pulmonary ventilation
External respiration
Internal respiration

2

Moving air in and out of lungs

Pulmonary ventilation

3

Gas exchange between alveoli and blood

External respiration

4

Gas exchange between blood and cells

Internal respiration

5

upper respiratory system

Nose and pharynx

6

lower respiratory system

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs

7

consists of All airways that carry air to lungs

conduction zone

8

parts included in conduction zone

Nose, pharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles

9

Sites within lungs where gas exchange occurs

respiratory zone

10

parts of the respiratory zone

Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli

11

Warm, humidify, filter/trap dust and microbes

nose

12

Detect olfactory stimuli

nose

13

Modify vocal sounds

nose

14

“Voice box”

larynx

15

Made largely of cartilage

larynx

16

cartilages of the larynx

thyroid
cricoid
arytenoids

17

cartilage of larynx
: V-shaped
“Adam's apple”: projects more anteriorly in males
Vocal cords “strung” here (and to arytenoids

thyroid cartilage

18

leaf-shaped piece; covers airway
During swallowing, larynx moves up so ------ covers opening into trachea

epiglottis

19

cartilage of larynx
inferior most portion

cricoid

20

cartilage of larynx
superior to cricoid

Arytenoids

21

windpipe

trachea

22

Anterior to esophagus and thoracic vertebrae
Extends from end of larynx to primary bronchi

trachea

23

opening in trachea for tube

tracheostomy

24

enter the lungs medially

primary bronchiu

25

Measured by spirometer

Lung Volumes

26

volume of air that can be inhaled beyond tidal volume (TV)

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV

27

volume of air that can be exhaled beyond TV

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

28

Air remaining in lungs after a maximum expiration

= residual volume (RV)

29

TV + IRV

Inspiratory capacity

30

RV + ERV

Functional residual capacity (FRC)

31

IRV + TV + ERV

Vital capacity (VC)

32

VC + RV

Total lung capacity (TLC)

33

branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of disorders associated with the nose, ears, and throat

otorhinolarynogology

34

study of diseases associated with lungs

pulmonology

35

divides nasal cavity into left and right sides

nasal septum

36

separates nasal and oral cavity

hard palate

37

bony ridges that modify the lateral walls of nasal cavity

conchae

38

openings within the superior and middle meatus
humidifies and heats inhaled air
serves as a crumple zone during facial accidents

PARANASAL SINUSES

39

located within each inferior meatus
carries excess tears into nasal cavity

nasolacrimal duct

40

extends from soft palate to epiglottis
common passageway for air, food, drink

oropharynx

41

extends from tip of epiglottis to esophagus
both respiratory and digestive pathway

laryngopharynx

42

located posterior to choanae and superior to soft palate
receives air from nasal cavity
exchanges small amts of air with auditory tubes

nasopharynx

43

allows air passage to lungs for respiration, thermoregulation, protection

trachea

44

main passageway of air into the lungs
lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

bronchi

45

right lungs has

3 lobes

46

left lung has

2 lobes

47

ends of alveolar ducts
chambers connected to 2 or more alveoli

alveolar sacs

48

cupshaped outpouching lined by simple squamous epithelium
supported by a thin elastic basement membrane

main sites of gas exchange

49

lab proceudre to determine the strength of lungs

spirometry

50

phases of respiratory cycle

exhalation
inhalation

51

movement of air into and out of respi tract

VENTILATION

52

used to measure the volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs

spirometer

53

consists of a drum inverted in a tank of water with a tube that extends from the air space in the drum to the mouth of the subject

wet spiromete

54

suspended from pulley and counterbalanced by weight

drum of spirometer

55

volume of air exhaled into the spirometer is ___ proportional to the rise of the inverted vessel

directly

56

spirogram

record of pulmonary volumes

57

fast, deep, breathing

hyperventilation

58

slow or shallow breathing

hypoventilation

59

amount of carbonic acid during hyperventilation

increased

60

amount of carbonic acid during hypoventilation

decreased

61

buffering ability of blood in hypo/hyperventilation is affected , resulting to

acidosis or alkalosis

62

cause of hyperventilation

anxiety attacks

63

effect of hyperventilation

brief periods of apnea

64

cessation of breathing

apnea

65

cessation of breathingcan lead to build up of

carbon dioxide in the blood

66

if breathing stops for a time, ___ may occur

cyanosis

67

effect of hyperventilation

cyanosis
apnea
dizzines
faint

68

effect of hyperventilation to the buffering abilityof blood

alkalosis

69

constricts cerebral blood vessels

alkalosis

70

smooth muscle movements that cause churning of food

segmentation ocntractions

71

enzyme that digests starch

amylase

72

enzyme that digests lipids

lipase

73

enzyme that digests proteins

pepsin

74

test tubes used in experiment

loefflers

75

reagents used for the digestion of starch by amylase

saliva
0.5% HCl
12 drops buffer

76

how were the test tubes incubated

heated in a water bath (37C) for 30 min

77

reagent use for the starch test

1 drop lugol's iodine solution (orange brown)

78

brown or negative (starch test result)

- negative

79

light blue (starch test result)

+

80

medium blue (starch test result)

++

81

dark blue (starch test result)

+++

82

black (starch test result)

++++

83

sugar test reagent

3 drops of Benedict's reagent (color: aqua blue)

84

blue (sugar test result)

-

85

green (sugar test result)

+

86

yellow (sugar test result)

++

87

orange (sugar test result)

+++

88

red (sugar test result)

++++

89

procedure for sugar test

add 3 drops benedicts reagent
mix by swirling
put in a beaker with hot water for 3 min

90

proceudre for starch test

label spot plate A - F
get tubes from water bath
mix by swirling
place 2 drops of soltuion
place 1 drop of lugol
observe results

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