Respiratory Structures & Details Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Respiratory Structures & Details > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Structures & Details Deck (31):
1

(Structure of an alveolus)
Type 2 alveolar cell secretes surfactant
def? what does it do?

phospholipid mixture that prevents alveolus from collapsing and makes the lungs more stretchy

2

(Structure of an alveolus)
Alveolus
def?

air-filled sac that is the terminal part of the airways

3

(Structure of an alveolus)
Interstitial space
def?

space btwn cells filled with interstitial fluid

4

(Structure of an alveolus)
Alveolar cell
def?

thin-walled, squamous epithelial cell that is the site of gas exchange

5

(Structure of an alveolus)
Alveolar fluid
contains?

contains surfactant

6

(Structure of an alveolus)
Alveolar macrophage
def/function?

phagocytes that wander through the alveoli and remove dust and debris from alveolar spaces

7

branching of a bronchial tree (10)

trachea
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducs
alveolar sacs
alveoli

8

Trachea

cartilaginous tube that extends from larynx to bronchi. it's the main airway and is lined w/ mucous membranes that move trapped particles upward to the pharynx

9

Pleaural membranes

enclose and protect each lung

10

Pleural cavity

fluid-filled space btwn lungs and pleural membranes that connects the lungs to the thoracic wall

11

horizontal fissure

separates superior and middle lobes of lung (right only)

12

oblique fissue

separates middle and inferior lobes of lung (right and left)

13

left and right bronchi (primary bronchi)

connect trachea with left and right lungs; pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and exit along bronchial passages

14

secondary and tertiary bronchi

branch from primary bronchi

15

bronchioles

smaller tubes that branch from tertiary bronchi

16

cardiac notch

indentation in left lung where heart sits

17

diaphragm

one of the major respiratory muscles

18

carina

last line of cartilage before primary bronchi

19

internal respiration
O2 ? CO2 ?

O2 diffuses from red blood cells into tissues
CO2 diffuses from tissue cells into RBC
(gas exchange btwn systemic capillaries and tissue cells)

20

external respiration
O2? CO2?

O2 diffuses from alveolus into plasma & red blood cells
CO2 diffuses out of RBC into an alveolus to be exhaled
(gas exchange btwn alveoli and pulmonary capillaries)

21

partial pressure in atmosphere?

nitrogen
oxygen
carbon dioxide
other gases
total: 760 mmHg

22

diaphragm relaxed is? inhaled?

relaxed- arched
inhale- straight

23

sternocleiodmastoid muscles

raise in sternum during deep inhalations

24

scalene muscles

elevate the 2 uppermost ribs during deep inhalations

25

external intercostals

pull up and out on the ribs, thereby contributing to expanding the thoracic cavity during normal breathing

26

diaphragm

major muscle of inhalation
as it contracts, it descends and flattens, thereby increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity

27

internal intercostal muscles

move the upper ribs downward during forced exhalation

28

abdominal muscles

COMPRESS ABDOMINAL VISCERA AND FORCE DIAPHRAGM UPWARD DURING FORCED EXHALATION
-INTERNAL OBLIQUE
-TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
-RECTUS ABDOMINIS
(contract when exhale)

29

external oblique muscles

move the lower ribs downward and inward during forced exhalation

30

obstructive pulmonary diseases affect what?
diseases?
diseases?

affect the airways and hinder the flow of air
asthma
COPD
Emphysema
Chronic bronchitis

31

restrictive pulmonary diseases affect what?

structure of lungs and limit the capacity of the lungs to expand
pulmonary fibrosis
sarcoidosis
pulmonary edema