Respiratory system 2: Pulmonary Ventilation Flashcards Preview

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Pulmonary respiration

The process of gas exchange between the air we breathe (atmosphere) and the alveoli of the lungs

1

External (pulmonary) respiration

The process of gas exchange between the alveoli of the lung and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

2

Internal (pulmonary) respiration

The process of gas exchange between the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells

3

Boyle's law

The pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container

4

The most important muscle Invovled in inhalation/inspiration

Diaphragm (accounting 75% of contraction) and external intercostals (accounting 25% of contraction)

5

Quiet Inspiration/inhalation

Diaphragm descends 1 cm and ribs lifted by muscles
external intercostals elevate the ribs increasing the dimensions of the chest cavity
Inhalation of about 500ml of air

6

Forced inhalation

accessory muscles of inspiration (SCM, scalenes and pectoralis minor) are also used to lift chest upward as you gasp for air.

Diaphragm descends 4 cm
Intrathoracic pressure falls and 2-3 liters inhaled

7

Exhalation occurs when...

Alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure.

8

Quiet expiration

Passive process with no muscle action
Elastic recoil and surface tension in alveoli pulls inward
Alveolar pressure increases and air is pushed out

9

Forced expiration

Exhalation becomes active during labored breathing and when air movement out of the lung is impeded. Internal intercostals depress ribs and abdominal muscles force diaphragm up.

10

Intrapleural pressure

is the pressure between the parietal and visceral layers of the lungs
Always subatomospheric
As diaphragm contracts and volume of Thracic cavity increases, volume of the pleural cavity also increases which causes intrapleural pressure to decreases even more
Helps keep parietal and visceral pleura stuck together when chest expands

11

Alveolar surface tension

Thin layer of fluid in alveoli causes inwardly directed force = surface tension
water molecules strongly attracted to each other causes alveoli to remain as small as possible

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What does Type II alveolar cells produce?

Surfacant, detergent-like substance lowers alveolar surface tension. Insufficient in premature babies so that alveoli collapse at end of each exhalation

13

What is compliance of the lungs

Ease with which lungs and chest wall expand depends upon elasticity of lungs and surface tension
Some diseases reduce compliance

14

Which diseases reduce compliance of the lungs

Tuberculosis forms scar tissue
Pulmonary edema - fluid in lungs and reduced surfacant
Paralysis

15

Airway resistance

Resistance to airflow depends upon airway size
Increase size of chest - airways increase in diameter

contract smooth muscles in airways - decreases in diameter

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Normal variation in breathing rate and depth is called

Eupnea

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Breath holding is called

Apnea

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Painful or difficult breathing is called

Dyspnea

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Rapid breathing rate is called

Tachypnea

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combinations of various patterns of intercostal and extracostal muscles, usually during need for increased ventilation as with exercise

Costal breathing

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Usual mode of operation to move air by contracting and relaxing the diaphragm to change the lung volume

Diaphragmatic breathing

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Used to express emotions and to clear air passageways

Modified respiratory movements

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deep inspiration, closure of rima glottidis and strong expiration blasts air out of clear respiratory passages

Coughing

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Spasmodic contraction of diaphragm and quick closure of rima glottidis produce sharp inspiratory sound

Hiccuping

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an instrument that measures breathing volumes

Spirometer (respirometer)
The graph that charts the volumes called a spirogram

26

Total lung capacity (TLC)

Approx 6000 mls in guys, 4200 mls in females, this is a sum of all the air in the lung.

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Tidal volume (TV)

the volume inhaled and exhaled under normal breaths

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Functional residual capacity (FRC)

Expiratory reserve volume + Residual volume. The amount that always remains and the amount you can forcibly exhale after a normal exhale
2400 ml

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Residual volume (RV)

The small amount of air that will always remain in your lungs, no matter how much you exhale 1200 ml

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Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

The amount of air you can force out after normal exhalation 1200 ml

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Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

The additional air you can forcibly inhale after a normal inhalation 3100 ml

32

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

sum of tidal volume (normal inhale/exhale + Inspiratory Reserve volume, the max that you can forcibly inhale)
3600 ml

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Vital capacity (VC)

Sum of Tidal volume + Inspiratory reserve volume + Expiratory reserve volume

34

Dalton's law

The pressure of a gas exerts its own pressure as if no other gases are present.
PN2 + PO2+ PH2O+PCO2=Patm

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What is approx % of each gas in Patm

78.6% N2
20.9% O2
0.04% CO2
0.06% other gases

36

Henry's Law

The quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility

37

Nitrogen narcosis

N2 has low solubility at sea level but as total partial pressures increases (as in oxygen tank mixtures), a more than normal amount of N2 dissolves in plasma and tissues. They feel like they are "drunk"

38

Decompression sickness

when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, the N2 comes out of solution and forms gas bubbles in nervous tissues. Symptoms include joint pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue or paralysis

39

Hyperbaric oxygenation

Hyperbaric chamber pressure is raised to 3 to 4 atmospheres so that tissues absorb more O2. Treatment for patients with anaerobic bacterial infections (tetanus and gangrene), heart disorders, carbon monoxide poisoning, cerebral edema, bone infections, gas embolisms and crush injuries. Anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of O2.

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Rate of exchange depends on

Partial pressure
Surface area available for gas exchange
Diffusion distance
Molecular weight and solubility of the gas

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what % of O2 gas is transported via haemoglobin

98.5% (oxyhemoglobin or Hb-O2)

42

how many % is dissolved in blood plasma

1.5%

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How many % of O2 is unloaded to cells under normal resting conditions

25%

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factors that affect the affinity of O2 to haemoglobin

1. pH - the lower the pH (more acidic), the more H+ ions in solution, the less the affinity. Thus lowered blood plasma pH shits the curve to the RIGHT.
2. Partial Pressure of CO2 - As PCO2 increases, the curve also shifts to the RIGHT b/c of increased H+ions in solution due to the reaction with carbonic anhydrase that forms H+ and HCO3-
3. Temperature - as temperature increases, more O2 is released from Hb. (and vice versa for lowered body temp)
4. BPG- (2,3 - bisphosphoglycerate)- compound produced by RBCs that decreases the affinity for O2 on Hb. Increase BPG, increase O2 release
5. Fetal Hemoglobin (HB-F)-Fetal Hb finds to BPG with LESS affinity than maternal (Hb-A) thus binds O2 with MORE affinity

45

% of each carbon dioxide transport

7% blood blasma
23% attached to Hb to form Hb-CO2, Carbaminohemoglobin (Higher in tissue capillaries and lower in pulmonary capillaries)
70% is transported as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)

46

Chloride shift

The conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate ions and the related chloride shift maintains the ionic balance between plasma and red blood cells

47

Heldane Effect

The lower the amount of Hb-O2 the higher the CO2 carrying capacity of the blood

48

Summary of gas exchange and transport in lungs and tissues

CO2 in blood causes O2 to split from hemoglobin
Similarly, the binding of O2 to hemoglobin causes a release of CO2 from blood

49

what is anatomical dead space/respiratory dead space

is the conducting airways with air that do not undergo respiratory exchange

50

volume of one breath

tidal (about 500 ml)

51

how much of tidal volume actually reach alveoli

350 ml. 150 ml (30%) remains in anatomical dead space

52

which volume in the lung can not be measured by a spirometer

residual

53

How does hight, gender and age of a person affect lung volumes

larger volume - taller younger and make
smaller female, shorter and elderly

54

what respiratory system structures are in the anatomical dead space

Nose, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

55

vital capacity

inspiratory reserve volume 3100 and tidal volume 500 and expiratory reserve volume 1200 = 4800

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volume of air/min that reaches the alveoli

alveolar ventilation rate (4200 ml/min)

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Amount of air forcibly expired in 1 sec with maximal effort following maximal inhalation

FEV1

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total volume of air taken in during one minute

minute volume of respiration (MVR) = 6000ml/min (tidal volume x 12 respirations per minute = 6000 ml/min)

59

to determine partial pressure of O2

multiply 760 by % of air that is O2 21% = 160 mm Hg