What contains alveoli
What is our cut off from conduction to respiration
Conduction ends with bronchioles and respiration begins at the repiratory bronchioles (where alveoli begin)
Conducting passages deliver :
• Are lined by a______
• Have a wall stabilized by ________
• Produce______ secretions
clean, warm and moist air
bone, cartilage or muscle
The lining membrane of cavities (e.g., lumens of tubular
organs) that have a connection to the exterior of the
body is called a_____
(Respiratory passageways are examples of musoca)
3 things mucosa provides
• An immunological & physical barrier
• A source of secretory products
• A selective absorptive interface
Consistent Components of a Mucosa Include:
_______– at the surface
________ – a CT layer that supports the epithelium
Lamina Propria have:
• ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells
• seromucous glands and venous plexus
Particlesa removed from mucosa via:
how can these get damaged?
Glands and Cilia Interact to Remove Particulates from the Mucosa (mucociliary elevator)
Smoking and other irritants decrease effectiveness of this, also have Primary ciliary diskenisias
Respiratory Epithelium are made up of:
• Columnar Cells*
• Goblet Cells*
• Basal Cells*
• Small Granule Cells
• Brush Cells
How would you classify respiratory epithelium?
What is included in Olfactory Epithelium?
• Olfactory Cells
• Supporting Cells
• Basal Cells
• Brush Cells
What special cell do we see in the nasopharnyx?
lymphocytes... the adenoids are located here under free layers of epithelium
Fluid can accumulate here and can affect the voice
True vocal cord is lined with:
stratified squamous epithelium
The lingual surface of the larnyx has ________
the Pharnygeal side of the larynx has ______
stratified squamous epithelium
pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
Which way are the cartilagenous C rings in the trachea facing?
opening is posterior and adjacent fo the esophagus
Describe the components seen on bronchi histology
Primary to tertiary bronchi
See respiratory epithelium: pseudostratidied columnar epithelium
underneath is Lamina Propria
under is smoot muslce with mast cells (issues d/t hitsamines)
What is the structure that provides support in the bronchioles?
What is the role of Clara cells?
Bronchioles have smooth muscle, no cartiledge
*Clara cells in terminal bronchioles are SECRATORY to keep alveoli from collapsing and fusing during respiration
What do the mucosa of nasal vestibule, oropharnyx, vocal folds and respiratory passageways of smokers have in common?
A covering of stratified squamous epithelium (get metaplasia or transition from pseudostratified-->stratified)
Smooth muscle is the primary support structure for the wall in which tissue?
Chronic bronchitis, cycstic fibrosis and Bronchial carcinoma are all examples of clincal conditions affect
Intrapulmonary conducting airways
As we go from conduction to respiratory system, what happens to epithelium?
reticular fibers increase
1. A Terminal Bronchiole & the lung tissue it supplies
2. Portion of the lung supplied by a respiratory Bronchiole
Whats the difference between Type I and Type II alveolar pneumocytes?
Type I: covers majority of the surface of the alveoli but only 40% of total cell
Type II: larger cell, more numerous, lamellae body, makes surfactant and is 60% total
What are the contents of Surfactant secreated by Type II pneumocytes
Surfactant Proteins A,B,C,D
What part of the surfactant is active in reducing surface tension?
The capillary endothelial cells is make of :
ACE to convert Ang I --> Ang II
There is collagen fibrils and elsastin withing the alveolar wall
Where you see the capillary epithelium thin and almost fused
Blood-Air barrier of the alveolar septum, very thin
Macrophages inside the lungs are called:
what are they when they transition out?
What can they become during a pathologic process?
heart fail cells
ARDS, Intertitial fibrosis, emphysema and lung cancer and infections are all clinical conditions affecting the:
• Most conducting passageways lined with
ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells = respiratory epithelium
• In terminal bronchioles goblet cells replaced by
multifunctional Clara cells
• Respiratory system is lined with a:
• Respiratory passageways contain:
contains capillaries and small amounts of elastic and reticular fibers as well as fibroblasts and macrophages
• Alveolar wall or septum
• Alveoli lined with thin type ___cells and larger type ___cells
• Type____cells produce components of pulmonary surfactant
Blood-air barrier consists of what 3 components?
type I epithelial cell,
capillary endothelial cell