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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (108):
1

what are the two parts of the respiratory tract?

upper and lower

2

what is the structure that divides the respiratory tract?

the larynx

3

what does the upper respiratory system contain?

deals with sinuses

nose, pharynx, to the larynx

4

what does the lower respiratory system deal with?

trachea (windpipe) bronchi, alveoli, bronchioles, lungs

5

what is the alveoli

air-filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange between air and blood occur.

6

definition of inspiration

taking of air into the lungs

7

definition of expiration

air out of lungs

8

the act of breathing (inspiration) is divided into how many parts?

4

9

what is the first part of inspiration

pulmonary ventrilation/RESPIRATION: oxygen to the lungs

10

what is after pulmonary ventrilation?

external respiration: oxygen from lungs to blood

11

what is after external respiration?

internal respiration: oxygen from blood to cell

12

what is after internal respiration

cellular respiration: oxygen from cell into mitochondria of cell

13

what is cellular respiration?

making of ATP in mitochondria, utilizing oxygen

14

what does respiration begin with

the nose

mouth is backup

15

what divides the external nares and the internal nares?

septum

16

what is the septum made of?

cartilage and bone

17

what two kinds of bone are in the septum?

perpendicular plate of ethmoid

vomer

18

what are the external nares?

nostrils which open into the nasal cavity; where air enters the respiratory system.

19

the nasal cavity is divided into what?

4 sinuses
frontal
sphenoidal
ethmoidal
maxillary

20

what kind of tissue lines the nasal cavity/sinuses

ciliated pseutostratified epithelium

21

what does the naval cavity/sinuses do to the air?

we filter it, and warm it up to get to body temperature

22

what is the little part of your nose that sticks out

vestibule

23

ethmoidal cavity is also known as the

nose bone

24

what is the function of the sinus?

filter, warm and clear air that comes through

25

what is a booger?

solid mucus

26

when a sinus becomes infected, it is called

sinusitis

27

from the nasal cavity, as we work out way down to lungs, we hit a tube. what is that tube called?

pharynx

28

what is a pharynx

a tube that is the common passageway for food and air

29

the pharynx is divided into how many parts?

3 parts

nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

30

what does the eustachian tube do?

allows air to come in to balance out middle ear and outer ear in pressure.

one end in the middle ear, one end in nasopharynx

31

why does the eustachian tube open up into the nasopharynx

drain air and lowers infection

32

what is the lacrimal gland?

tear gland; produces mostly water and and enzyme that keeps infection out of eye

33

what does the lacimal canal do?

it drains the tears from your eye

34

where is the lacimal canal located?

in the nasopharynx

35

where is one of the three pairs of tonsils?

pharyngeal tonsils in the nasopharynx

36

where are your pharyngeal tonsils? can you see them?

they are above the palatine bone

37

where is the nasopharynx located?

from the nose to the palatine bone

38

what are tonsils?

lymphnodes in mucous membrane of pharynx

39

oropharynx contains how many sets of tonsels?

2

palatine and lingual

40

where is the oropharynx located?

Soft palate to hyoid bone

41

where are your palatine tonsils?

located in the back of tongue

42

lingual tonsils are

bumps on the back of tongue

(divided)

43

what is the function of the tonsils in the oropharynx?

hopefully get rid of some of the bacteria that is on the food that we eat before it can get to the digestive system

44

laryngopharynx is located in the

area of larynx

45

how many pieces of cartilage is the larynx made up of

9

3 single
3 paired

46

what are the 3 single cartilage of the larynx?

thyroid cartilage
epiglottis
cricoid cartilage

47

what are the 3 cartilages that occur in pairs in the larynx?

arytenoid
cuneiform
corniculate cartilage

48

what is the arytenoid cartilages responsible for

influence the positions and tensions of the vocal folds/vocal cords

49

thyroid cartilage

single cartilage of larynx
form walls of larynx and give it shape

50

fused plates of the thyroid cartilage forms the

laryngeal prominence

51

what is the proper name for Adam's Apple

laryngeal prominence

52

what does epiglottis mean?

epi- : over
-glottis : tongue

53

what is the function of the epiglottis?

Lies on top of larynx, attached to thyroid cartilage, unattached portion free to move up and down to cover the glottis (vocal folds and rims glottidis) during swallowing

54

definition of pharynx

carry food and air

55

definition of larynx

voice box

56

vocal folds are made of

connective epithelium

57

what makes glottis?

vocal folds/cords

58

on the end of each arytenoid cartilage is what?

corniculate cartilage

59

where is the cuneiform?

in the vocal folds; you can't see it

60

what is the function of the glottis?

narrow opening in which inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx.

61

what is another name for windpipe

trachea

62

what is the shape of trachea

"C" shaped cartilage rings

63

why is the trachea "C" shaped?

so it can expand and get big things down there

64

the trachea leads to what

bronchi

65

the bronchi are divided into

primary
secondary
tertiary

66

the primary bronchi has two. they are called

the right and the left

67

as soon as it divides from the primary on the secondary, it is called

secondary

68

on the right side of the primary there are how many secondary bronchi

3

69

on the left side of primary, there are how many secondary bronchi

2

70

secondary bronchi lead to where

go to each lobe of lungs

71

how many lobes do we have in the lungs

5

72

what denotes a bronchioles?

they lack cartilage

73

what are bronchiles made of

smooth muscle

74

why do the bronchioles lack cartilage

because they need to be elastic

75

when smooth muscle contracts due to an antigen, what is that condition called?

asthma

76

when the bronchioles constricts, it leads to

asthma

77

what is the sac that goes around the lungs

pleural membrane (double bound)

78

the pleura is made out of

serous membrane

79

serous membrane is made of

parietal: outside
visceral: inside

80

fluid inside pleural membrane

pleural fluid

81

infection of pleural fluid

pleurisy

82

intercostals

muscles in between rib; responsible for tidal volume

83

external intercostals

inspiration; outside of the rib

increases volume of thoracic cavity

84

internal intercostals

expiration; inside of rib

85

diaphragm is responsible for

deep breathing

86

what are the main muscles of respiration

abdominal muscles
sternocleidomastoid
scalenes

87

pneumothroax

sucking wound; perforation of thoracic cavity

88

hemothroax

blood going into thoracic cavity

89

-pnea

breathing

90

apnea

absence of breathing movements

91

Eupnea

normal breathing

92

bronchitis

inflammation of mucus membrane anywhere in lower respiratory tract

serious business

93

emphysema

destroyed surfactant producing cells = no oxygen for diffusion

94

surfactant

cells that secret a lipoprotein that decrease the pressure for diffusion

DECREASE SURFACE TENSION

95

Pneumonia

build up of mucus in lungs

96

pulmonary embolism

clot in lungs

97

pulmonary edema

build up of fluid

98

what is vital capacity

the maximum amount of air that can be inspired or expired

99

residual volume

air that keeps passageway open

100

tidal volume

normal breathing at rest

100-180 ml

101

what is the formula for vital capacity

insp + exp + tidal volume

102

pulmonary edema is very similar to what

pneumonia

103

expiratory reserve volume

you breath out some more just as you get ready to inhale again

104

metaplasia

changing tissue from one type to another

105

dead space/air

the last of the air that you breath in, and the first to come out never gets to go down to lung to diffuse

106

"forced air"

example of inspirational reserve volume and expirational reserve volume

107

otorhinolaryngology

study of ears, nose, and throat

108

What is the function of diaphragm?

Most important muscle that powers breathing

Separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities