Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (108):
what are the two parts of the respiratory tract?
upper and lower
what is the structure that divides the respiratory tract?
what does the upper respiratory system contain?
deals with sinuses
nose, pharynx, to the larynx
what does the lower respiratory system deal with?
trachea (windpipe) bronchi, alveoli, bronchioles, lungs
what is the alveoli
air-filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange between air and blood occur.
definition of inspiration
taking of air into the lungs
definition of expiration
air out of lungs
the act of breathing (inspiration) is divided into how many parts?
what is the first part of inspiration
pulmonary ventrilation/RESPIRATION: oxygen to the lungs
what is after pulmonary ventrilation?
external respiration: oxygen from lungs to blood
what is after external respiration?
internal respiration: oxygen from blood to cell
what is after internal respiration
cellular respiration: oxygen from cell into mitochondria of cell
what is cellular respiration?
making of ATP in mitochondria, utilizing oxygen
what does respiration begin with
mouth is backup
what divides the external nares and the internal nares?
what is the septum made of?
cartilage and bone
what two kinds of bone are in the septum?
perpendicular plate of ethmoid
what are the external nares?
nostrils which open into the nasal cavity; where air enters the respiratory system.
the nasal cavity is divided into what?
what kind of tissue lines the nasal cavity/sinuses
ciliated pseutostratified epithelium
what does the naval cavity/sinuses do to the air?
we filter it, and warm it up to get to body temperature
what is the little part of your nose that sticks out
ethmoidal cavity is also known as the
what is the function of the sinus?
filter, warm and clear air that comes through
what is a booger?
when a sinus becomes infected, it is called
from the nasal cavity, as we work out way down to lungs, we hit a tube. what is that tube called?
what is a pharynx
a tube that is the common passageway for food and air
the pharynx is divided into how many parts?
what does the eustachian tube do?
allows air to come in to balance out middle ear and outer ear in pressure.
one end in the middle ear, one end in nasopharynx
why does the eustachian tube open up into the nasopharynx
drain air and lowers infection
what is the lacrimal gland?
tear gland; produces mostly water and and enzyme that keeps infection out of eye
what does the lacimal canal do?
it drains the tears from your eye
where is the lacimal canal located?
in the nasopharynx
where is one of the three pairs of tonsils?
pharyngeal tonsils in the nasopharynx
where are your pharyngeal tonsils? can you see them?
they are above the palatine bone
where is the nasopharynx located?
from the nose to the palatine bone
what are tonsils?
lymphnodes in mucous membrane of pharynx
oropharynx contains how many sets of tonsels?
palatine and lingual
where is the oropharynx located?
Soft palate to hyoid bone
where are your palatine tonsils?
located in the back of tongue
lingual tonsils are
bumps on the back of tongue
what is the function of the tonsils in the oropharynx?
hopefully get rid of some of the bacteria that is on the food that we eat before it can get to the digestive system
laryngopharynx is located in the
area of larynx
how many pieces of cartilage is the larynx made up of
what are the 3 single cartilage of the larynx?
what are the 3 cartilages that occur in pairs in the larynx?
what is the arytenoid cartilages responsible for
influence the positions and tensions of the vocal folds/vocal cords
single cartilage of larynx
form walls of larynx and give it shape
fused plates of the thyroid cartilage forms the
what is the proper name for Adam's Apple
what does epiglottis mean?
epi- : over
-glottis : tongue
what is the function of the epiglottis?
Lies on top of larynx, attached to thyroid cartilage, unattached portion free to move up and down to cover the glottis (vocal folds and rims glottidis) during swallowing
definition of pharynx
carry food and air
definition of larynx
vocal folds are made of
what makes glottis?
on the end of each arytenoid cartilage is what?
where is the cuneiform?
in the vocal folds; you can't see it
what is the function of the glottis?
narrow opening in which inhaled air leaves the pharynx and enters the larynx.
what is another name for windpipe
what is the shape of trachea
"C" shaped cartilage rings
why is the trachea "C" shaped?
so it can expand and get big things down there
the trachea leads to what
the bronchi are divided into
the primary bronchi has two. they are called
the right and the left
as soon as it divides from the primary on the secondary, it is called
on the right side of the primary there are how many secondary bronchi
on the left side of primary, there are how many secondary bronchi
secondary bronchi lead to where
go to each lobe of lungs
how many lobes do we have in the lungs
what denotes a bronchioles?
they lack cartilage
what are bronchiles made of
why do the bronchioles lack cartilage
because they need to be elastic
when smooth muscle contracts due to an antigen, what is that condition called?
when the bronchioles constricts, it leads to
what is the sac that goes around the lungs
pleural membrane (double bound)
the pleura is made out of
serous membrane is made of
fluid inside pleural membrane
infection of pleural fluid
muscles in between rib; responsible for tidal volume
inspiration; outside of the rib
increases volume of thoracic cavity
expiration; inside of rib
diaphragm is responsible for
what are the main muscles of respiration
sucking wound; perforation of thoracic cavity
blood going into thoracic cavity
absence of breathing movements
inflammation of mucus membrane anywhere in lower respiratory tract
destroyed surfactant producing cells = no oxygen for diffusion
cells that secret a lipoprotein that decrease the pressure for diffusion
DECREASE SURFACE TENSION
build up of mucus in lungs
clot in lungs
build up of fluid
what is vital capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be inspired or expired
air that keeps passageway open
normal breathing at rest
what is the formula for vital capacity
insp + exp + tidal volume
pulmonary edema is very similar to what
expiratory reserve volume
you breath out some more just as you get ready to inhale again
changing tissue from one type to another
the last of the air that you breath in, and the first to come out never gets to go down to lung to diffuse
example of inspirational reserve volume and expirational reserve volume
study of ears, nose, and throat