Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (48):
1

What is respiration (4 steps)

1.) movement of air into lungs
2.) gas exchange between blood and air (external)
3.) gas transport in blood
4.) gas exchange between blood and body cells(internal)

2

Nose function

Bones and cartilage support the nose, it's two openings hair filters large particles

3

Nasal conchae

Bones that divide nasal cavity, support mucus membrane, warms and moistens air, traps particles particles it traps drain to the stomach

4

Paranasal sinuses

Spaces within bones
Reduces the weight of the skull
Ex.) maxillary, frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid

5

Pharynx (throat)

Space behind the oral cavity

6

Larynx

Enlargement at the top of the trachea and below the pharynx
Composed of muscle and cartilages

7

Larynx function

1.) Conducts air in and out of trachea
2.) houses vocal cords

8

True vocal folds

Produce sound
Change shape to form words
Change pitch

9

False vocal folds

Don't produce sound
Close the airway when swallowing

10

Laryngitis

Mucus membranes swell, vocal cords don't vibrate freely

11

Glottis

Triangular slit opens during breathing and talking and closes during swallowing

12

Epiglottis

Flap that allows air into larynx and prevents food from entering the air passageway

13

Trachea

A flexible cylinder that works as a windpipe and extends downward in front of the esophagus and leads to the bronchial tree

14

How many times do bronchi split?

3

15

Perfusion

Ability of tissue to take in oxygen

16

Lungs

Soft, spongy cone shaped organs that sit within the pleural cavity

17

Visceral pleural

Membrane that Attaches to each lung surface

18

Parietal pleura

Visceral pleura folded back, contains fluid to lubricate the lungs while breathing

19

Serious fluid

Lubricates when breathing

20

Inspiration

Inhale

21

Expiration

Exhale

22

Non respiratory moments

Coughing
Sneezing
Laughing
Crying
Hiccup- a spasm of diaphragm
Yawn- low oxygen levels?

23

Spirometry

Measures the amount of air moving in and out of the lungs

24

Respiratory cycle

1 inhale and 1 exhale

25

Resting tidal volume

Amount of air the enters the lungs during 1 cycle

26

Reserve volumes

Air can be forced in or out

27

Vital capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled

28

Functional residual capacity

Volume of air remains when at rest

29

Total lung capacity

Vital capacity + reserved volume

30

Respiratory center

Groups of neurons in the brain that control inspiration and expiration

31

Respiratory membrane

Alveoli and blood exchange gasses

32

What factors affect breathing?

Rise in CO2
Low blood oxygen
Emotional upset
Inflation reflex

33

Inflation reflex

Regulates depth of breathing

34

Alkalosis and Acidosis

Normal pH value for body fluids
Caused by chemical imbalance

35

Acidosis

Body fluid drops below 7.35
Too much CO2 being retained

36

Asphyxia

Advanced asthma
Severe emphysema

37

Alkalosis

pH value is above 7.45
Too much CO2 being eliminated
- hyperventilating
Decreased atmospheric pressure

38

Hyperventilating

Increased breathing, lower CO2 concentrate
Breathing in a bag can restore Co2 concentration

39

Cystic fibrosis

Hereditary disease
Mucus clogs the lungs

40

COPD

Obstruction of the airway
Can occur with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or both
Smoking is most common cause

41

Bronchitis

Inflammation of bronchi
Can be short lived or chronic

42

Lung cancer

Starts when abnormal cells grow out of control in the lungs

43

Symptoms

Usually none
Can be like pneumonia

44

Altitude sickness

Reduces air pressure
Affects nervous system, lungs, muscles, and heart

45

Symptoms of altitude sickness

Mild- life threatening

46

Asthma

Chronic inflammatory disease
An airway obstruction
Broncho spasm

47

Emphysema

Smoking is leading cause

48

What does the respiratory system do?
(4 things)

1.) Exchanges CO2 for oxygen
2.) produces vocal sounds
3.) smelling
4.) regulates blood acidity (pH balance)